Germanium

Germanium (Ge)

grundämne
Atomnummer32
Atommassa72.63
masstal74
Grupp14
Period4
Blockp
Protoner32 p+
Neutroner42 n0
Electrons32 e-
Germanium element.jpg Animated Bohrs atommodell of Ge (Germanium) Enhanced Bohrs atommodell of Ge (Germanium) Bohrs atommodell: Ge (Germanium) Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germanium)

Egenskaper

atomradie
125 pm
molvolym
kovalent radie
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waalsradie
211 pm
densitet
5,3234 g/cm³
energi
proton affinity
Elektronaffinitet
1,232712 eV/particle
joniseringsenergi
7,899435 eV/particle
ångbildningsvärme
328 kJ/mol
smältvärme
36,8 kJ/mol
Bildningsentalpi
372 kJ/mol
Electrons
electron shell2, 8, 18, 4
valenselektron4
elektronkonfiguration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
oxidationstal-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
elektronegativitet
2.01
Electrophilicity
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
Phases
aggregationstillståndFast
Gas Phase
Kokpunkt
3 106,15 K
Smältpunkt
1 211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9 802,15 K
trippelpunkt
Visual
färg
Grå
appearancegrayish-white
Brytningsindex
materialegenskap
Värmeledningsförmåga
60,2 W/(m K)
termisk expansion
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specifik värmekapacitet
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
elektrisk konduktivitet
0,002 MS/m
resistivitet
0,0005 m Ω
supraledare
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetisk susceptibilitet (Mass)
−0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetisk susceptibilitet (Molar)
−0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetisk susceptibilitet (Volume)
−0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Curiepunkten
Néel temperature
Structure
KristallstrukturYtcentrerat kubiskt (DIA)
Gitterkonstant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mekanisk materialegenskap
hårdhet
6 MPa
Kompressibilitet
skjuvmodul
Young's modulus
Poissons konstant
ljudhastighet
5 400 m/s
klassificering
KategoriMetalloid, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile
övrigt
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
Allotropes
Träffyta
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
kvanttal3P0
rymdgrupp225 (Fm_3m)

Germaniumisotoper

Stabila isotoper5
Instabila isotoper28
Radioactive Isotopes28

58Ge

natural abundance
relative atomic mass
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
masstal58
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum
Paritet+

58Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
2p (2-proton emission)%

59Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
masstal59
g-factor
Halveringstid
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
Spinn7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum2015
Paritet-

59Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
masstal60
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
21 ± 6 ms
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum2005
Paritet+

60Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
masstal61
g-factor
Halveringstid
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
Spinn3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1987
Paritet-

61Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
masstal62
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1991
Paritet+

62Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

63Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
masstal63
g-factor
Halveringstid
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
Spinn3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1991
Paritet-

63Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

64Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
masstal64
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
63,7 ± 2,5 s
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet+

64Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
masstal65
g-factor
Halveringstid
30,9 ± 0,5 s
Spinn3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet-

65Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
masstal66
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
2,26 ± 0,05 h
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1950
Paritet+

66Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
masstal67
g-factor
Halveringstid
18,9 ± 0,3 m
Spinn1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1950
Paritet-

67Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
masstal68
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
271,05 ± 0,08 d
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1948
Paritet+

68Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
masstal69
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
Halveringstid
39,05 ± 0,1 h
Spinn5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
upptäcktsdatum1938
Paritet-

69Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
relative atomic mass
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
masstal70
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1923
Paritet+

71Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
masstal71
g-factor
Halveringstid
11,43 ± 0,03 d
Spinn1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1941
Paritet-

71Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
relative atomic mass
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
masstal72
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1923
Paritet+

73Ge

natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
relative atomic mass
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
masstal73
g-factor
−0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
Halveringstid
Spinn9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
−0,196 ± 0,001
upptäcktsdatum1933
Paritet+

74Ge

natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
relative atomic mass
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
masstal74
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1923
Paritet+

75Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
masstal75
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
Halveringstid
82,78 ± 0,04 m
Spinn1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1939
Paritet-

75Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
7,75 ± 0,12
relative atomic mass
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
masstal76
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1933
Paritet+

76Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
masstal77
g-factor
Halveringstid
11,211 ± 0,003 h
Spinn7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1939
Paritet+

77Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
masstal78
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
88 ± 1 m
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1953
Paritet+

78Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
masstal79
g-factor
Halveringstid
18,98 ± 0,03 s
Spinn1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1970
Paritet

79Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
masstal80
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
29,5 ± 0,4 s
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet+

80Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
masstal81
g-factor
Halveringstid
9 ± 2 s
Spinn9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet+

81Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
masstal82
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
4,31 ± 0,19 s
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet+

82Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
masstal83
g-factor
Halveringstid
1,85 ± 0,06 s
Spinn5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet+

83Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

84Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
masstal84
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
951 ± 9 ms
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1972
Paritet+

84Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
masstal85
g-factor
Halveringstid
495 ± 5 ms
Spinn3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1991
Paritet+

85Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

86Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
masstal86
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
221,6 ± 11 ms
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1994
Paritet+

86Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
masstal87
g-factor
Halveringstid
103 ± 4 ms
Spinn5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1997
Paritet+

87Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

88Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
masstal88
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
61 ± 6 ms
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum1997
Paritet+

88Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

89Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
masstal89
g-factor
Halveringstid
Spinn3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
upptäcktsdatum1997
Paritet+

89Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

90Ge

natural abundanceRadioactive ☢️
relative atomic mass
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
masstal90
g-factor
0
Halveringstid
Spinn0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
upptäcktsdatum2010
Paritet+

90Ge Decay Modes
decay modeIntensitet
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

historia

upptäckare eller uppfinnareClemens Winkler
fyndplatsGermany
upptäcktsdatum1886
etymologiLatin: Germania (Germany).
uttaljer-MAY-ni-em (engelska)

Sources

Förekomst
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0,00005 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0,0021 %
Abundance in Sun
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564