Германий

Германий (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
Адади массавӣ74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
proton32 p+
neutron42 n0
electron32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Германий)

Хусусияти Физикӣ

Atomic Radius
125 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
зичӣ
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Германий0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

энергия
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Германий)
enthalpy of vaporization
328 kJ/mol
гармои гудозиш
36,8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
electron
Абри электронӣ2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Германий)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Германий)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Германий)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Германий)
oxidation number-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 106,15 K
Melting Point
1 211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9 802,15 K
triple point
appearance
Ранг
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
навъSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0,002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0005 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
навъdiamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
сохт
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
lattice constant
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
speed of sound
5 400 m/s
classification
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
ададҳои квантӣ3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

Адади массавӣ58
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

Адади массавӣ59
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

Адади массавӣ60
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

Адади массавӣ61
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

Адади массавӣ62
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

Адади массавӣ63
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

Адади массавӣ64
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

Адади массавӣ65
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

Адади массавӣ66
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

Адади массавӣ67
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

Адади массавӣ68
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

Адади массавӣ69
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
таърихи кашф1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

Адади массавӣ70
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1923
parity+

71Ge

Адади массавӣ71
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

Адади массавӣ72
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1923
parity+

73Ge

Адади массавӣ73
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
-0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,196 ± 0,001
таърихи кашф1933
parity+

74Ge

Адади массавӣ74
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1923
parity+

75Ge

Адади массавӣ75
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

Адади массавӣ76
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

Адади массавӣ77
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

Адади массавӣ78
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

Адади массавӣ79
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

Адади массавӣ80
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

Адади массавӣ81
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

Адади массавӣ82
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

Адади массавӣ83
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

Адади массавӣ84
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

Адади массавӣ85
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

Адади массавӣ86
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

Адади массавӣ87
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

Адади массавӣ88
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

Адади массавӣ89
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

Адади массавӣ90
neutron number58
relative atomic mass
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

таърих

кошифClemens Winkler
макони кашфGermany
таърихи кашф1886
РешашиносӣLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (Англисӣ)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (Уқёнус)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Офтоб)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564