Germaniy

Germaniy (Ge)

chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32
Atomic Number32
Atomic Weight72.63
mass number74
Group14
Period4
Blockp
Proton32 p+
Neytron42 n0
Elektron32 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ge (Germaniy)

Fizik Xossa

Atom Radiusi
125 pm
Molyar hajm
Kovalentlik Radiusi
121 pm
Metallic Radius
124 pm
Ion radiuslar
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
211 pm
density
5,3234 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Germaniy0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtom RadiusiKovalentlik RadiusiMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energiya
proton affinity
electron affinity
1,232712 eV/particle
ionization energy
7,899435 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ge (Germaniy)
Solishtirma qaynash issiqligi
328 kJ/mol
solishtirma erish issiqligi
36,8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
372 kJ/mol
Elektron
Ion asboblar2, 8, 18, 4
Bohr model: Ge (Germaniy)
valence electron4
Lewis structure: Ge (Germaniy)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ge (Germaniy)
Orbital Diagram of Ge (Germaniy)
Oksidlanish darajasi-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektrmanfiylik
2.01
Electrophilicity Index
1,5636638275958255 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 106,15 K
Melting Point
1 211,4 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
9 802,15 K
triple point
appearance
Rang
Gray
appearancegrayish-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
60,2 W/(m K)
Issiqlikdan kengayish
0,000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,222 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeSemiconductor
electrical conductivity
0,002 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,0005 m Ω
superconductivity
Magnetizm
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,0000000015 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000109 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,00000798
magnetic ordering
Kyuri nuqtasi
Néel temperature
Tuzilma
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (DIA)
Kristall panjara davri
5,66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Qattiqlik
6 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Yung moduli
Poisson's ratio
Tovush tezligi
5 400 m/s
klassifikatsiya
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIVB
IUPAC GroupIVA
Glawe Number84
Mendeleev Number89
Pettifor Number84
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
40 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
354 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0011
Atom kvant sonlari3P0
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Germanium

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes29
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition7436.52%7436.52%7227.45%7227.45%7020.52%7020.52%737.76%737.76%767.75%767.75%

58Ge

mass number58
neutron number26
Nisbiy atom massa
57,991863 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)

59Ge

mass number59
neutron number27
Nisbiy atom massa
58,982426 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
13,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2015
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)93%
2p (2-proton emission)0.2%

60Ge

mass number60
neutron number28
Nisbiy atom massa
59,970445 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
21 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2005
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)100%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

61Ge

mass number61
neutron number29
Nisbiy atom massa
60,963725 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
40,7 ± 0,4 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

62Ge

mass number62
neutron number30
Nisbiy atom massa
61,954761 ± 0,00015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
82,5 ± 1,4 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

63Ge

mass number63
neutron number31
Nisbiy atom massa
62,949628 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
153,6 ± 1,1 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

64Ge

mass number64
neutron number32
Nisbiy atom massa
63,941689912 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
63,7 ± 2,5 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ge

mass number65
neutron number33
Nisbiy atom massa
64,939368136 ± 0,000002323 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
30,9 ± 0,5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.011%

66Ge

mass number66
neutron number34
Nisbiy atom massa
65,933862124 ± 0,000002577 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
2,26 ± 0,05 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1950
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ge

mass number67
neutron number35
Nisbiy atom massa
66,932716999 ± 0,000004636 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
18,9 ± 0,3 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1950
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

68Ge

mass number68
neutron number36
Nisbiy atom massa
67,928095305 ± 0,000002014 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
271,05 ± 0,08 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

69Ge

mass number69
neutron number37
Nisbiy atom massa
68,927964467 ± 0,000001414 Da
g-factor
0,294 ± 0,0028
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
39,05 ± 0,1 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,114 ± 0,007
time of discovery or invention1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

70Ge

mass number70
neutron number38
Nisbiy atom massa
69,924248542 ± 0,00000088 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
20,52 ± 0,19
Radioaktivlikstable isotope
Yarim yemirilish davriNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1923
parity+

71Ge

mass number71
neutron number39
Nisbiy atom massa
70,92495212 ± 0,000000874 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
11,43 ± 0,03 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

72Ge

mass number72
neutron number40
Nisbiy atom massa
71,922075824 ± 0,000000081 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
27,45 ± 0,15
Radioaktivlikstable isotope
Yarim yemirilish davriNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1923
parity+

73Ge

mass number73
neutron number41
Nisbiy atom massa
72,923458954 ± 0,000000061 Da
g-factor
-0,19516444444444 ± 0,000011111111111111
natural abundance
7,76 ± 0,08
Radioaktivlikstable isotope
Yarim yemirilish davriNot Radioactive ☢️
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,196 ± 0,001
time of discovery or invention1933
parity+

74Ge

mass number74
neutron number42
Nisbiy atom massa
73,92117776 ± 0,000000013 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
36,52 ± 0,12
Radioaktivlikstable isotope
Yarim yemirilish davriNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1923
parity+

75Ge

mass number75
neutron number43
Nisbiy atom massa
74,92285837 ± 0,000000055 Da
g-factor
1,018 ± 0,01
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
82,78 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ge

mass number76
neutron number44
Nisbiy atom massa
75,921402725 ± 0,000000019 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
7,75 ± 0,12
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
1,88 ± 0,08 Zy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1933
parity+

decay modeintensity
(double β decay)100%

77Ge

mass number77
neutron number45
Nisbiy atom massa
76,923549843 ± 0,000000056 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
11,211 ± 0,003 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1939
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ge

mass number78
neutron number46
Nisbiy atom massa
77,922852911 ± 0,000003795 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
88 ± 1 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1953
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ge

mass number79
neutron number47
Nisbiy atom massa
78,925359506 ± 0,000039893 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
18,98 ± 0,03 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1970
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

80Ge

mass number80
neutron number48
Nisbiy atom massa
79,925350773 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
29,5 ± 0,4 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

81Ge

mass number81
neutron number49
Nisbiy atom massa
80,928832941 ± 0,000002205 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
9 ± 2 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

82Ge

mass number82
neutron number50
Nisbiy atom massa
81,929774031 ± 0,000002405 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
4,31 ± 0,19 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

83Ge

mass number83
neutron number51
Nisbiy atom massa
82,9345391 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
1,85 ± 0,06 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

84Ge

mass number84
neutron number52
Nisbiy atom massa
83,93757509 ± 0,000003403 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
951 ± 9 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10.6%

85Ge

mass number85
neutron number53
Nisbiy atom massa
84,942969658 ± 0,000004003 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
495 ± 5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1991
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

86Ge

mass number86
neutron number54
Nisbiy atom massa
85,946967 ± 0,00047 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
221,6 ± 11 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)45%

87Ge

mass number87
neutron number55
Nisbiy atom massa
86,953204 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
103 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

88Ge

mass number88
neutron number56
Nisbiy atom massa
87,957574 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
61 ± 6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

89Ge

mass number89
neutron number57
Nisbiy atom massa
88,96453 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

90Ge

mass number90
neutron number58
Nisbiy atom massa
89,969436 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivlik☢️ Radioaktiv elementlar
Yarim yemirilish davri
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Germanium element

tarix

discoverer or inventorClemens Winkler
location of discoveryGermany
time of discovery or invention1886
EtimologiyaLatin: Germania (Germany).
pronunciationjer-MAY-ni-em (inglizcha)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5 mg/kg
natural abundance (Okean)
0,00005 mg/L
natural abundance (Inson tanasi)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0,0021 %
natural abundance (Quyosh)
0,00002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7063
2p3.9178
2s8.6352
3d15.7487
3p14.9864
3s14.2103
4p25.2196
4s23.9564