Lithium

Lithium (Li)

Lithium is the 3rd element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Li and atomic number of 3. It has an atomic weight of 6.940 and a mass number of 7. Lithium has three protons and four neutrons in its nucleus, and three electrons in two shells. It is located in group one, period two and block s of the periodic table. Socket silvery metal. First member of group 1 of the periodic table. Lithium salts are used in psychomedicine.
Atomic Number3
Atomic Weight6.94
Mass Number7
Group1
Period2
Blocks
Protons3 p+
Neutrons4 n0
Electrons3 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Li (Lithium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
133 pm
Metallic Radius
123 pm
Ionic Radius
59 pm
Crystal Radius
73 pm
Van der Waals Radius
182 pm
Density
0.534 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Lithium020406080100120140160180200pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.618049 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
5.391714761 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Li (Lithium)
Heat of Vaporization
148 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.89 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
159.3 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 1
Bohr Model: Li (Lithium)
Valence Electrons1
Lewis Structure: Li (Lithium)
Electron Configuration[He] 2s1
1s2 2s1
Enhanced Bohr Model of Li (Lithium)
Orbital Diagram of Li (Lithium)
Oxidation States0, 1
Electronegativity
0.98
Electrophilicity Index
0.9457422835847783 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,615.15 K
Melting Point
453.65 K
Critical Pressure
67 MPa
Critical Temperature
3,223.15 K
Triple Point
Visual

Lithium is a Silver. Li has a CPK of #b22222, Jmol of #cc80ff, and MOLCAS GV of #cc80ff. The Appearance of Element 3 is silvery-white.

Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery-white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
84.8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.000046 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.86 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
3.582 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
11 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000009400000000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000256 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000178 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000137
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Lithium is BCC. The lattice constant of Li is 3.49 Å. The lattice angles of Element 3 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.49 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Lithium has a Mohs hardness of 0.6 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Li is 11 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 3 is 4.2 GPa. The Young Modulus of Lithium (Li) is 4.9 GPa. The Speed of Sound of Lithium is 6000 m/s.

Hardness
0.6 MPa
Bulk Modulus
11 GPa
Shear Modulus
4.2 GPa
Young's Modulus
4.9 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
6,000 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Lithium is IA. The IUPAC Group of Li is IA. The Glawe Number of Element 3 is 12. The Mendeleev Number of Lithium (Li) is 1. The Pettifor Number of Lithium is 12. The Geochemical Class of Li is alkali metal. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 3 is litophile.

CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number12
Mendeleev Number1
Pettifor Number12
Geochemical Classalkali metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Lithium is 164.1125 plus or minus 0.0005 a₀. Li has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 1392 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 1410 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 3 is . The Neutron Cross Section of Lithium (Li) is 71. The Quantum Numbers of Lithium is 2S1/2. The Space Group of Li is 229 (Im_3m).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
164.1125 ± 0.0005 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,392 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
71
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Lithium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes9
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition795.15%795.15%64.85%64.85%

3Li

Mass Number3
Neutron Number0
Relative Atomic Mass
3.030775 ± 0.002147 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

4Li

Mass Number4
Neutron Number1
Relative Atomic Mass
4.027185561 ± 0.000227733 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
91 ± 9 ys
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1965
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

5Li

Mass Number5
Neutron Number2
Relative Atomic Mass
5.0125378 ± 0.000053677 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
370 ± 30 ys
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1941
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

6Li

Mass Number6
Neutron Number3
Relative Atomic Mass
6.01512288742 ± 0.00000000155 Da
G-Factor
0.822043 ± 0.000003
Abundance
4.85 ± 1.71
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
-0.000806 ± 0.000006
Discovery Year1921
Parity+

7Li

Mass Number7
Neutron Number4
Relative Atomic Mass
7.01600343426 ± 0.0000000045 Da
G-Factor
2.170938 ± 0.000008
Abundance
95.15 ± 1.71
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.04 ± 0.0003
Discovery Year1921
Parity-

8Li

Mass Number8
Neutron Number5
Relative Atomic Mass
8.022486244 ± 0.00000005 Da
G-Factor
0.82675 ± 0.00001
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
838.7 ± 0.3 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0314 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
βα (β-delayed α emission)100%

9Li

Mass Number9
Neutron Number6
Relative Atomic Mass
9.026790191 ± 0.0000002 Da
G-Factor
2.2911066666667 ± 0.00004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
178.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0304 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)50.5%

10Li

Mass Number10
Neutron Number7
Relative Atomic Mass
10.035483453 ± 0.000013656 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2 ± 0.5 zs
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)100%

11Li

Mass Number11
Neutron Number8
Relative Atomic Mass
11.043723581 ± 0.00000066 Da
G-Factor
2.4474 ± 0.00013333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.75 ± 0.06 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0333 ± 0.0005
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)86.3%
2n (2-neutron emission)4.1%
3n (3-neutron emission)1.9%
βα (β-delayed α emission)1.7%
β d (β-delayed deuteron emission)0.013%
β t (β-delayed triton emission)0.0093%

12Li

Mass Number12
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
12.052613942 ± 0.000032213 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)

13Li

Mass Number13
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
13.061171503 ± 0.00007515 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.3 ± 1.2 zs
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2008
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
2n (2-neutron emission)100%
Lithium paraffin

History

Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden. The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently. In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen. From the Greek word lithos, stone

DiscoverersJohann Arfwedson
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1817
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: lithos (stone).
PronunciationLITH-i-em (English)
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions

Uses

Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant. Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics. Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants. Used in batteries. Also for certain kinds of glass and ceramics. Some is used in lubricants.

Sources

Obtained by passing electric charge through melted lithium chloride and from the silicate mineral called spodumene [LiAl(Si2O6)].

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.18 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.000003 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.00017 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.000000006 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3094
2s1.7208

Also Known As

  • Li
  • element 3
  • 3Li

Translations

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