Lithium

Lithium (Li)

Socket silvery metal. First member of group 1 of the periodic table. Lithium salts are used in psychomedicine.
Atomic Number3
Atomic Weight6.94
Mass Number7
Group1
Period2
Blocks
Protons3 p+
Neutrons4 n0
Electrons3 e-
Lithium paraffin.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
145 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
133 pm
Metallic Radius
123 pm
Ionic Radius
59 pm
Crystal Radius
73 pm
Van der Waals radius
182 pm
Density
0.534 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,118.15 K
Melting Point
553.69 K
Electrons per shell2, 1
Electronegativity
0.98
Electrophilicity
0.9457422835848 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.618049 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
5.391714761 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
148 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.89 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
159.3 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
24.86 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
3.582 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
84.8 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
164.1125 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,392 a₀
Oxidation States1
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.49 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[He] 2s1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number12
Mendeleev Number1
Pettifor Number12
Geochemical Classalkali metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.18 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe6×10-7%

Isotopes of Lithium

Stable Isotopes
6Li 7Li
Unstable Isotopes
3Li 4Li 5Li 8Li 9Li 10Li 11Li 12Li

History

Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden. The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently. In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen. From the Greek word lithos, stone

DiscoverersJohann Arfwedson
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1817
Name OriginGreek: lithos (stone).
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions

Uses

Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant. Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics. Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants. Used in batteries. Also for certain kinds of glass and ceramics. Some is used in lubricants.

Sources

Obtained by passing electric charge through melted lithium chloride and from the silicate mineral called spodumene [LiAl(Si2O6)].