લિથિયમનો

લિથિયમનો (Li)

chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3
Atomic Number3
Atomic Weight6.94
mass number7
Group1
Period2
Blocks
પ્રોટોન3 p+
neutron4 n0
ઈલેક્ટ્રોન3 e-
Animated બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત of Li (લિથિયમનો)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
145 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
133 pm
Metallic Radius
123 pm
ionic radius
59 pm
Crystal Radius
73 pm
Van der Waals radius
182 pm
density
0.534 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: લિથિયમનો0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

રાસાયણિક ગુણધર્મ

ઉર્જા
proton affinity
electron affinity
0.618049 eV/particle
ionization energy
5.391714761 eV/particle
ionization energy of Li (લિથિયમનો)
enthalpy of vaporization
148 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
2.89 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
159.3 kJ/mol
ઈલેક્ટ્રોન
electron shell2, 1
બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત: Li (લિથિયમનો)
valence electron1
Lewis structure: Li (લિથિયમનો)
electron configuration[He] 2s1
1s2 2s1
Enhanced બૉહરનો સિદ્ધાંત of Li (લિથિયમનો)
Orbital Diagram of Li (લિથિયમનો)
oxidation number0, 1
વિદ્યુતઋણતા
0.98
Electrophilicity Index
0.9457422835847783 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
1,615.15 K
Melting Point
453.65 K
critical pressure
67 MPa
critical temperature
3,223.15 K
triple point
appearance
color
Silver
appearancesilvery-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
84.8 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.000046 1/K
molar heat capacity
24.86 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
3.582 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
11 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000009400000000002 m Ω
superconductivity
magnetism
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000256 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000000178 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000137
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
lattice constant
3.49 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
0.6 MPa
bulk modulus
11 GPa
shear modulus
4.2 GPa
Young's modulus
4.9 GPa
Poisson's ratio
અવાજની ઝડપ
6,000 m/s
classification
CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number12
Mendeleev Number1
Pettifor Number12
Geochemical Classalkali metal
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
164.1125 ± 0.0005 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,392 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
71
Neutron Mass Absorption
quantum number2S1/2
space group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Lithium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes9
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition795.15%795.15%64.85%64.85%

3Li

mass number3
neutron number0
relative atomic mass
3.030775 ± 0.002147 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

4Li

mass number4
neutron number1
relative atomic mass
4.027185561 ± 0.000227733 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
91 ± 9 ys
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1965
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%

5Li

mass number5
neutron number2
relative atomic mass
5.0125378 ± 0.000053677 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
370 ± 30 ys
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1941
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%

6Li

mass number6
neutron number3
relative atomic mass
6.01512288742 ± 0.00000000155 Da
g-factor
0.822043 ± 0.000003
natural abundance
4.85 ± 1.71
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.000806 ± 0.000006
શોધની તારીખ1921
પૅરિટી+

7Li

mass number7
neutron number4
relative atomic mass
7.01600343426 ± 0.0000000045 Da
g-factor
2.170938 ± 0.000008
natural abundance
95.15 ± 1.71
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.04 ± 0.0003
શોધની તારીખ1921
પૅરિટી-

8Li

mass number8
neutron number5
relative atomic mass
8.022486244 ± 0.00000005 Da
g-factor
0.82675 ± 0.00001
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
838.7 ± 0.3 ms
પ્રચક્રણ2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0314 ± 0.0002
શોધની તારીખ1935
પૅરિટી+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
βα (β-delayed α emission)100%

9Li

mass number9
neutron number6
relative atomic mass
9.026790191 ± 0.0000002 Da
g-factor
2.2911066666667 ± 0.00004
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
178.2 ± 0.4 ms
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.0304 ± 0.0002
શોધની તારીખ1951
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)50.5%

10Li

mass number10
neutron number7
relative atomic mass
10.035483453 ± 0.000013656 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2 ± 0.5 zs
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ1975
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
n (neutron emission)100%

11Li

mass number11
neutron number8
relative atomic mass
11.043723581 ± 0.00000066 Da
g-factor
2.4474 ± 0.00013333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.75 ± 0.06 ms
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.0333 ± 0.0005
શોધની તારીખ1966
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)86.3%
2n (2-neutron emission)4.1%
3n (3-neutron emission)1.9%
βα (β-delayed α emission)1.7%
β d (β-delayed deuteron emission)0.013%
β t (β-delayed triton emission)0.0093%

12Li

mass number12
neutron number9
relative atomic mass
12.052613942 ± 0.000032213 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
પ્રચક્રણ1
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2008
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
n (neutron emission)

13Li

mass number13
neutron number10
relative atomic mass
13.061171503 ± 0.00007515 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.3 ± 1.2 zs
પ્રચક્રણ3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
શોધની તારીખ2008
પૅરિટી-

decay modeintensity
2n (2-neutron emission)100%
Lithium paraffin

ઈતિહાસ

શોધક અથવા સંશોધકJohann Arfwedson
શોધનું સ્થળSweden
શોધની તારીખ1817
etymologyGreek: lithos (stone).
ઉચ્ચારLITH-i-em (અંગ્રેજી)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (ocean)
0.18 mg/L
natural abundance (માનવ શરીર)
0.000003 %
natural abundance (ઉલ્કા)
0.00017 %
natural abundance (સૂર્ય)
0.000000006 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3094
2s1.7208