Plutonium

Plutonium (Pu)

Plutonium is the 94th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Pu and atomic number of 94. It has an atomic weight of (244) and a mass number of 221. Plutonium has ninety-four protons and one hundred twenty-seven neutrons in its nucleus, and ninety-four electrons in seven shells. It is located in group Actinides, period seven and block f of the periodic table. Dense silvery radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Pu-244 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 7.6*10^7 years. Thirteen isotopes are known. Pu-239 is the most important, it undergoes nuclear fission with slow neutrons and is hence important to nuclear weapons and reactors. Plutonium production is monitored down to the gram to prevent military misuse. First produced by Gleen T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, J.W. Kennedy and A.C. Wahl in 1940.
Atomic Number94
Atomic Weight244
Mass Number221
Group
Period7
Blockf
Protons94 p+
Neutrons127 n0
Electrons94 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Pu (Plutonium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
172 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
100 pm
Crystal Radius
114 pm
Van der Waals Radius
243 pm
Density
19.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Plutonium0255075100125150175200225250pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Ionization Energies of Pu (Plutonium)
Heat of Vaporization
343.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
345 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Bohr Model: Pu (Plutonium)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: Pu (Plutonium)
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f6 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 5f6 7s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Pu (Plutonium)
Orbital Diagram of Pu (Plutonium)
Oxidation States2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,501.15 K
Melting Point
913.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Plutonium is a Silver. Pu has a CPK of #ffffff, Jmol of #006bff, and MOLCAS GV of #006bff. The Appearance of Element 94 is silvery white, tarnishing to dark gray in air.

Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white, tarnishing to dark gray in air
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
0.67 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000015 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000317 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000007735 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0006282
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Plutonium is MCL. The lattice angles of Pu are π/2, 1.776571, π/2.

Crystal StructureSimple Monoclinic (MCL)
Lattice Constant
Lattice Anglesπ/2, 1.776571, π/2
Mechanical Properties

The Shear Modulus of Plutonium is 43 GPa. The Young Modulus of Pu is 96 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Element 94 is 0.21. The Speed of Sound of Plutonium (Pu) is 2260 m/s.

Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
43 GPa
Young's Modulus
96 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.21
Speed of Sound
2,260 m/s
Classification

The Glawe Number of Plutonium is 38. The Mendeleev Number of Pu is 24. The Pettifor Number of Element 94 is 43. The Goldschmidt Class of Plutonium (Pu) is synthetic.

CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number38
Mendeleev Number24
Pettifor Number43
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Plutonium is 132 plus or minus 20 a₀. The Allotropes of Pu is . The Neutron Cross Section of Element 94 is 1.7. The Quantum Numbers of Plutonium (Pu) is 7F0. The Space Group of Plutonium is 11 (P121/m1).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
132 ± 20 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
1.7
Neutron Mass Absorption
Quantum Numbers7F0
Space Group11 (P121/m1)

Isotopes of Plutonium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes27
Natural Isotopes0

221Pu

Mass Number221
Neutron Number127
Relative Atomic Mass
221.038572 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

222Pu

Mass Number222
Neutron Number128
Relative Atomic Mass
222.037638 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

223Pu

Mass Number223
Neutron Number129
Relative Atomic Mass
223.038777 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

224Pu

Mass Number224
Neutron Number130
Relative Atomic Mass
224.037875 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

225Pu

Mass Number225
Neutron Number131
Relative Atomic Mass
225.03897 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

226Pu

Mass Number226
Neutron Number132
Relative Atomic Mass
226.03825 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)
SF (spontaneous fission)

227Pu

Mass Number227
Neutron Number133
Relative Atomic Mass
227.039474 ± 0.000107 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)

228Pu

Mass Number228
Neutron Number134
Relative Atomic Mass
228.038763325 ± 0.000025069 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.1 ± 1.3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

229Pu

Mass Number229
Neutron Number135
Relative Atomic Mass
229.040145099 ± 0.000065092 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
91 ± 26 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)50%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)50%
SF (spontaneous fission)7%

230Pu

Mass Number230
Neutron Number136
Relative Atomic Mass
230.039648313 ± 0.000015514 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
105 ± 10 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

231Pu

Mass Number231
Neutron Number137
Relative Atomic Mass
231.041125946 ± 0.000023683 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.6 ± 0.5 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)
α (α emission)13%

232Pu

Mass Number232
Neutron Number138
Relative Atomic Mass
232.041182133 ± 0.000018126 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
33.7 ± 0.5 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)
α (α emission)20%

233Pu

Mass Number233
Neutron Number139
Relative Atomic Mass
233.042997411 ± 0.000058162 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
20.9 ± 0.4 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.12%

234Pu

Mass Number234
Neutron Number140
Relative Atomic Mass
234.043317489 ± 0.000007298 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.8 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)94%
α (α emission)6%

235Pu

Mass Number235
Neutron Number141
Relative Atomic Mass
235.045284609 ± 0.00002203 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
25.3 ± 0.5 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1957
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.9972%
α (α emission)0.0028%

236Pu

Mass Number236
Neutron Number142
Relative Atomic Mass
236.046056661 ± 0.000001942 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.858 ± 0.008 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.9%
28Mg2%
+ (double β+ decay)

237Pu

Mass Number237
Neutron Number143
Relative Atomic Mass
237.048407888 ± 0.000001821 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
45.64 ± 0.04 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1949
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)99.9958%
α (α emission)0.0042%

238Pu

Mass Number238
Neutron Number144
Relative Atomic Mass
238.049558175 ± 0.000001221 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
87.7 ± 0.1 y
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.9%
32Si1.4%
30Mg6%

239Pu

Mass Number239
Neutron Number145
Relative Atomic Mass
239.052161596 ± 0.000001194 Da
G-Factor
0.404 ± 0.008
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
24.11 ± 0.03 ky
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1946
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)3.1%

240Pu

Mass Number240
Neutron Number146
Relative Atomic Mass
240.05381174 ± 0.000001186 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.561 ± 0.007 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)5.796%
34Si1.3%

241Pu

Mass Number241
Neutron Number147
Relative Atomic Mass
241.056849651 ± 0.000001186 Da
G-Factor
-0.2712 ± 0.0056
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
14.329 ± 0.029 y
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
6
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)0.00245%
SF (spontaneous fission)2.4%

242Pu

Mass Number242
Neutron Number148
Relative Atomic Mass
242.058740979 ± 0.000001336 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
375 ± 2 ky
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)5.51%

243Pu

Mass Number243
Neutron Number149
Relative Atomic Mass
243.062002068 ± 0.000002728 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.9553 ± 0.0025 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

244Pu

Mass Number244
Neutron Number150
Relative Atomic Mass
244.064204401 ± 0.000002518 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
81.3 ± 0.3 My
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)99.877%
SF (spontaneous fission)0.123%
(double β decay)7.3%

245Pu

Mass Number245
Neutron Number151
Relative Atomic Mass
245.067824554 ± 0.000014621 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
10.5 ± 0.1 h
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

246Pu

Mass Number246
Neutron Number152
Relative Atomic Mass
246.070204172 ± 0.000016087 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
10.84 ± 0.02 d
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

247Pu

Mass Number247
Neutron Number153
Relative Atomic Mass
247.0743 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.27 ± 0.23 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
Plutonium ring

History

Plutonium was first produced in 1940 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, Joseph W. Kennedy and Arthur Wahl. Plutonium-238 was produced by deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley. The Berkeley team made neptunium-238 which decayed to plutonium-238. Named after the planet Pluto

DiscoverersG.T.Seaborg, J.W.Kennedy, E.M.McMillan, A.C.Wohl
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1940
Etymology (Name Origin)Named for the planet Pluto.
Pronunciationploo-TOE-ni-em (English)
Plutonium is harmful due to its radioactivity
The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945 had a plutonium core

Uses

The isotope plutonium-239 is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability. Plutonium-238 has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers, to reduce the risk of repeated surgery. Plutonium-238 mixed with beryllium is used to generate neutrons for research purposes. Used in bombs and reactors. Small quantities are used in thermo-electric generators.

Sources

Found rarely in some uranium ores. Made by bombarding uranium with neutrons.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0 %
Abundance in Universe
0 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

Also Known As

  • Pu
  • element 94
  • 94Pu

Translations

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