Plutonium

Plutonium (Pu)

Dense silvery radioactive metallic transuranic element, belongs to the actinoids. Pu-244 is the most stable isotope with a half-life of 7.6*10^7 years. Thirteen isotopes are known. Pu-239 is the most important, it undergoes nuclear fission with slow neutrons and is hence important to nuclear weapons and reactors. Plutonium production is monitored down to the gram to prevent military misuse. First produced by Gleen T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, J.W. Kennedy and A.C. Wahl in 1940.
Atomic Number94
Atomic Weight244
Mass Number228
Group
Period7
Blockf
Protons94 p+
Neutrons134 n0
Electrons94 e-
Plutonium ring.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
172 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
100 pm
Crystal Radius
113.99999999999999 pm
Van der Waals radius
243.00000000000003 pm
Density
19.7 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,505 K
Melting Point
914 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
Heat of Vaporization
343.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
345 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
132 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Oxidation States3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Monoclinic (MCL)
Lattice Constant
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number38
Mendeleev Number24
Pettifor Number43
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt Classsynthetic
Radioactivity
RadioactiveYes ☢️
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universena

Isotopes of Plutonium

Stable Isotopes
Unstable Isotopes
228Pu 229Pu 230Pu 231Pu 232Pu 233Pu 234Pu 235Pu 236Pu 237Pu 238Pu 239Pu 240Pu 241Pu 242Pu 243Pu 244Pu 245Pu 246Pu 247Pu

History

Plutonium was first produced in 1940 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, Joseph W. Kennedy and Arthur Wahl. Plutonium-238 was produced by deuteron bombardment of uranium-238 in the 60-inch cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley. The Berkeley team made neptunium-238 which decayed to plutonium-238. Named after the planet Pluto

DiscoverersG.T.Seaborg, J.W.Kennedy, E.M.McMillan, A.C.Wohl
Discovery LocationUnited States
Discovery Year1940
Name OriginNamed for the planet Pluto.
Plutonium is harmful due to its radioactivity
The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan in 1945 had a plutonium core

Uses

The isotope plutonium-239 is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability. Plutonium-238 has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers, to reduce the risk of repeated surgery. Plutonium-238 mixed with beryllium is used to generate neutrons for research purposes. Used in bombs and reactors. Small quantities are used in thermo-electric generators.

Sources

Found rarely in some uranium ores. Made by bombarding uranium with neutrons.