Scandium

Scandium (Sc)

Rare soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 3 of the periodic table. There are ten isotopes, nine of which are radioactive and have short half-lives. Predicted in 1869 by Mendeleev, isolated by Nilson in 1879.
Atomic Number21
Atomic Weight44.955908
Mass Number45
Group3
Period4
Blockd
Protons21 p+
Neutrons24 n0
Electrons21 e-
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Sc (Scandium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Sc (Scandium) Bohr Model: Sc (Scandium) Orbital Diagram of Sc (Scandium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
148 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
Ionic Radius
74.5 pm
Crystal Radius
88.5 pm
Van der Waals Radius
215 pm
Density
2.99 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
914 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
6.56149 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
332.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
15.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
377.8 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 9, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Electronegativity
1.36
Electrophilicity
0.8934589851890408 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,109.15 K
Melting Point
1,814.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
15.8 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000102 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.568 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1.8 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000055 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.05 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.000000088 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000003956 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0002627
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.31 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
57 GPa
Shear Modulus
29 GPa
Young Modulus
74 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.28
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number48
Mendeleev Number11
Pettifor Number20
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
892 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
97 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,383 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
27.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.025
Quantum Numbers2D3/2
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Scandium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes28
Radioactive Isotopes23

35Sc

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
35.029093 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number35
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

35Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

36Sc

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
36.017338 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number36
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

36Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

37Sc

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
37.004058 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number37
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

37Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

38Sc

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
37.995438 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number38
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

38Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

39Sc

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
38.984784953 ± 0.000025765 Da
Mass Number39
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1988
Parity-

39Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

40Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
39.977967275 ± 0.000003036 Da
Mass Number40
G-Factor
Half Life
182.3 ± 0.7 ms
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

40Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.44%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.017%

41Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
40.969251163 ± 0.000000083 Da
Mass Number41
G-Factor
1.5509428571429 ± 0.0004
Half Life
596.3 ± 1.7 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.145 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1941
Parity-

41Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

42Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
41.965516686 ± 0.000000165 Da
Mass Number42
G-Factor
0
Half Life
680.72 ± 0.26 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

42Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

43Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
42.961150425 ± 0.000001999 Da
Mass Number43
G-Factor
1.2931428571429 ± 0.0028571428571429
Half Life
3.891 ± 0.012 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.27 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1935
Parity-

43Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

44Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
43.959402818 ± 0.000001884 Da
Mass Number44
G-Factor
1.249 ± 0.0025
Half Life
4.0421 ± 0.0025 h
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.1 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

44Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

45Sc

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
44.955907051 ± 0.000000712 Da
Mass Number45
G-Factor
1.3582857142857 ± 0.000022857142857143
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.22 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1923
Parity-

46Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
45.955167034 ± 0.00000072 Da
Mass Number46
G-Factor
0.76 ± 0.002
Half Life
83.757 ± 0.014 d
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
0.119 ± 0.006
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

46Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

47Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
46.952402444 ± 0.000002072 Da
Mass Number47
G-Factor
1.5257142857143 ± 0.0057142857142857
Half Life
3.3492 ± 0.0006 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.22 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1945
Parity-

47Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

48Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
47.952222903 ± 0.000005313 Da
Mass Number48
G-Factor
0.62283333333333 ± 0.002
Half Life
43.67 ± 0.09 h
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

48Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

49Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
48.950013159 ± 0.000002434 Da
Mass Number49
G-Factor
1.6028571428571 ± 0.0085714285714286
Half Life
57.18 ± 0.13 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

49Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

50Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
49.952187437 ± 0.0000027 Da
Mass Number50
G-Factor
Half Life
102.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

50Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

51Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
50.953568838 ± 0.0000027 Da
Mass Number51
G-Factor
Half Life
12.4 ± 0.1 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1966
Parity

51Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

52Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
51.95649617 ± 0.0000033 Da
Mass Number52
G-Factor
Half Life
8.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity

52Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

53Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
52.958379173 ± 0.000019 Da
Mass Number53
G-Factor
Half Life
2.4 ± 0.6 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

53Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

54Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
53.963029359 ± 0.000015 Da
Mass Number54
G-Factor
Half Life
526 ± 15 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1990
Parity

54Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)16%

55Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
54.966889637 ± 0.000067 Da
Mass Number55
G-Factor
Half Life
96 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1990
Parity

55Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

56Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
55.972607611 ± 0.000278761 Da
Mass Number56
G-Factor
Half Life
26 ± 6 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

56Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

57Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
56.977048 ± 0.000193 Da
Mass Number57
G-Factor
Half Life
22 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

57Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

58Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
57.983382 ± 0.000204 Da
Mass Number58
G-Factor
Half Life
12 ± 5 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

58Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

59Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
58.988374 ± 0.000268 Da
Mass Number59
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

59Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

60Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
59.995115 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number60
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

60Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

61Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
61.000537 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number61
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

61Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

62Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
62.007848 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number62
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity

62Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

63Sc

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
63.014031 ± 0.000751 Da
Mass Number63
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

63Sc Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite. Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity. Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron. Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues. From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia

DiscoverersLars Nilson
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1879
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: Scandia, Scandinavia.
PronunciationSKAN-di-em (English)
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process

Uses

Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods. Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp. The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent. Scandium metal is used in some aerospace applications. Scandum oxide (Sc2O3) is used in the manufacture of high-intensity electric lamps. Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a color closely matching natural sunlight.

Sources

Occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile (~34% scandium) and wiikite. Also in some tin and tungsten ores. Pure scandium is obtained as a by-product of uranium refining.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000006 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.00064 %
Abundance in Sun
0.000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5434
2p3.9454
2s6.4264
3d13.8801
3p11.5938
3s10.6602
4s16.3676