Skandium

Skandium (Sc)

chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21
Atomic Number21
Atomic Weight44.955908
Massagetal45
Group3
Period4
Blockd
proton21 p+
neutron24 n0
elektron21 e-
Animated Bohr model of Sc (Skandium)

Physical Property

Atoomradius
160 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
148 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
Ioonradius
74,5 pm
Crystal Radius
88,5 pm
Van der Waals radius
215 pm
density
2,99 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Skandium020406080100120140160180200220pmAtoomradiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energie
proton affinity
914 kJ/mol
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,56149 eV/particle
ionization energy of Sc (Skandium)
Verdampingswarmte
332,7 kJ/mol
smeltingswarmte
15,8 kJ/mol
Vormingsentalpie
377,8 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronskil2, 8, 9, 2
Bohr model: Sc (Skandium)
Valenselektrone2
Lewisteorie: Sc (Skandium)
elektronkonfigurasie[Ar] 3d1 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Sc (Skandium)
Orbital Diagram of Sc (Skandium)
Oksidasietoestand0, 1, 2, 3
Elektronegatiwiteit
1.36
Electrophilicity Index
0,8934589851890408 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 109,15 K
Melting Point
1 814,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kleur
Silver
appearancesilvery white
Brekingsindeks
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
15,8 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,0000102 1/K
molar heat capacity
25,52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,568 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Geleidingsvermoë
1,8 MS/m
Elektriese resistiwiteit
0,00000055 m Ω
superconductivity
0,05 K
Magnetisme
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,000000088 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,000000003956 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,0002627
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3,31 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
Massamodulus
57 GPa
Skuifmodulus
29 GPa
Young se modulus
74 GPa
Poisson se verhouding
0,28
Spoed van klank
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number48
Mendeleev Number11
Pettifor Number20
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
892 kJ/mol
polarizability
97 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1 383 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
27,2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,025
quantum number2D3/2
Ruimtegroep194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Scandium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes28
Natural Isotopes1

35Sc

Massagetal35
neutron number14
relative atomic mass
35,029093 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

36Sc

Massagetal36
neutron number15
relative atomic mass
36,017338 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

37Sc

Massagetal37
neutron number16
relative atomic mass
37,004058 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

38Sc

Massagetal38
neutron number17
relative atomic mass
37,995438 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

39Sc

Massagetal39
neutron number18
relative atomic mass
38,984784953 ± 0,000025765 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1988
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)100%

40Sc

Massagetal40
neutron number19
relative atomic mass
39,977967275 ± 0,000003036 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
182,3 ± 0,7 ms
spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1955
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.44%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.017%

41Sc

Massagetal41
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
40,969251163 ± 0,000000083 Da
g-factor
1,5509428571429 ± 0,0004
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
596,3 ± 1,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,145 ± 0,003
ontdekkingsdatum1941
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

42Sc

Massagetal42
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
41,965516686 ± 0,000000165 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
680,72 ± 0,26 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1955
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

43Sc

Massagetal43
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
42,961150425 ± 0,000001999 Da
g-factor
1,2931428571429 ± 0,0028571428571429
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,891 ± 0,012 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,27 ± 0,05
ontdekkingsdatum1935
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

44Sc

Massagetal44
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
43,959402818 ± 0,000001884 Da
g-factor
1,249 ± 0,0025
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
4,0421 ± 0,0025 h
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,1 ± 0,05
ontdekkingsdatum1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

45Sc

Massagetal45
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
44,955907051 ± 0,000000712 Da
g-factor
1,3582857142857 ± 0,000022857142857143
natural abundance
100
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,22 ± 0,002
ontdekkingsdatum1923
parity-

46Sc

Massagetal46
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
45,955167034 ± 0,00000072 Da
g-factor
0,76 ± 0,002
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
83,757 ± 0,014 d
spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,119 ± 0,006
ontdekkingsdatum1936
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

47Sc

Massagetal47
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
46,952402444 ± 0,000002072 Da
g-factor
1,5257142857143 ± 0,0057142857142857
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
3,3492 ± 0,0006 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,22 ± 0,03
ontdekkingsdatum1945
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

48Sc

Massagetal48
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
47,952222903 ± 0,000005313 Da
g-factor
0,62283333333333 ± 0,002
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
43,67 ± 0,09 h
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

49Sc

Massagetal49
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
48,950013159 ± 0,000002434 Da
g-factor
1,6028571428571 ± 0,0085714285714286
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
57,18 ± 0,13 m
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1940
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

50Sc

Massagetal50
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
49,952187437 ± 0,0000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
102,5 ± 0,5 s
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1959
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

51Sc

Massagetal51
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
50,953568838 ± 0,0000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
12,4 ± 0,1 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1966
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

52Sc

Massagetal52
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
51,95649617 ± 0,0000033 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
8,2 ± 0,2 s
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1980
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

53Sc

Massagetal53
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
52,958379173 ± 0,000019 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,4 ± 0,6 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1980
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

54Sc

Massagetal54
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
53,963029359 ± 0,000015 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
526 ± 15 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1990
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)16%

55Sc

Massagetal55
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
54,966889637 ± 0,000067 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
96 ± 2 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1990
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

56Sc

Massagetal56
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
55,972607611 ± 0,000278761 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
26 ± 6 ms
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

57Sc

Massagetal57
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
56,977048 ± 0,000193 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
22 ± 2 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

58Sc

Massagetal58
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
57,983382 ± 0,000204 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
12 ± 5 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

59Sc

Massagetal59
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
58,988374 ± 0,000268 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2009
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

60Sc

Massagetal60
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
59,995115 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2009
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

61Sc

Massagetal61
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
61,000537 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2009
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

62Sc

Massagetal62
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
62,007848 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2018
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

63Sc

Massagetal63
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
63,014031 ± 0,000751 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube

geskiedenis

Ontdek deurLars Nilson
ligging van ontdekkingSweden
ontdekkingsdatum1879
etimologieLatin: Scandia, Scandinavia.
uitspraakSKAN-di-em (Engels)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (oseaan)
0,0000006 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (Meteoroïde)
0,00064 %
natural abundance (Son)
0,000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0,000003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5434
2p3.9454
2s6.4264
3d13.8801
3p11.5938
3s10.6602
4s16.3676