Scandium

Scandium (Sc)

Rare soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 3 of the periodic table. There are ten isotopes, nine of which are radioactive and have short half-lives. Predicted in 1869 by Mendeleev, isolated by Nilson in 1879.
Atomic Number21
Atomic Weight44.955908
Mass Number45
Group3
Period4
Blockd
Protons21 p+
Neutrons24 n0
Electrons21 e-
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
148 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
Ionic Radius
74.5 pm
Crystal Radius
88.5 pm
Van der Waals radius
215 pm
Density
2.99 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,104 K
Melting Point
1,814 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 9, 2
Electronegativity
1.36
Electrophilicity
0.893458985189 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
914 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
6.56149 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
332.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
15.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
377.8 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.568 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
15.8 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
892 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
97 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,383 a₀
Oxidation States1, 2, 3
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.31 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number48
Mendeleev Number11
Pettifor Number20
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.0000006 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe3×10-6%

Isotopes of Scandium

Stable Isotopes
45Sc
Unstable Isotopes
36Sc 37Sc 38Sc 39Sc 40Sc 41Sc 42Sc 43Sc 44Sc 46Sc 47Sc 48Sc 49Sc 50Sc 51Sc 52Sc 53Sc 54Sc 55Sc 56Sc 57Sc 58Sc 59Sc 60Sc

History

In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite. Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity. Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron. Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues. From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia

DiscoverersLars Nilson
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1879
Name OriginLatin: Scandia, Scandinavia.
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process

Uses

Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods. Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp. The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent. Scandium metal is used in some aerospace applications. Scandum oxide (Sc2O3) is used in the manufacture of high-intensity electric lamps. Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a color closely matching natural sunlight.

Sources

Occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile (~34% scandium) and wiikite. Also in some tin and tungsten ores. Pure scandium is obtained as a by-product of uranium refining.