Skandium

Skandium (Sc)

chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21
Atomic Number21
Atomic Weight44.955908
Nombor jisim45
Group3
Period4
Blockd
proton21 p+
neutron24 n0
Elektron21 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Sc (Skandium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
160 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
148 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
74.5 pm
Crystal Radius
88.5 pm
Jejari van der Waals
215 pm
ketumpatan
2.99 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Skandium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
914 kJ/mol
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
6.56149 eV/particle
ionization energy of Sc (Skandium)
Entalpi pengewapan
332.7 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
15.8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
377.8 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 9, 2
Model Bohr: Sc (Skandium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Sc (Skandium)
tatarajah elektron[Ar] 3d1 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Sc (Skandium)
Orbital Diagram of Sc (Skandium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan0, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
1.36
Electrophilicity Index
0.8934589851890408 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,109.15 K
Melting Point
1,814.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery white
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
15.8 W/(m K)
Pengembangan terma
0.0000102 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.568 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
1.8 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000055 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
0.05 K
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.000000088 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000003956 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.0002627
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.31 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
Modulus pukal
57 GPa
shear modulus
29 GPa
Young's modulus
74 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.28
Kelajuan bunyi
pengelasan
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number48
Mendeleev Number11
Pettifor Number20
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
892 kJ/mol
polarizability
97 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,383 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
27.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.025
Nombor kuantum2D3/2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Scandium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes28
Natural Isotopes1

35Sc

Nombor jisim35
nombor neutron14
jisim atom relatif
35.029093 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

36Sc

Nombor jisim36
nombor neutron15
jisim atom relatif
36.017338 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

37Sc

Nombor jisim37
nombor neutron16
jisim atom relatif
37.004058 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

38Sc

Nombor jisim38
nombor neutron17
jisim atom relatif
37.995438 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)

39Sc

Nombor jisim39
nombor neutron18
jisim atom relatif
38.984784953 ± 0.000025765 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1988
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%

40Sc

Nombor jisim40
nombor neutron19
jisim atom relatif
39.977967275 ± 0.000003036 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
182.3 ± 0.7 ms
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1955
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.44%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.017%

41Sc

Nombor jisim41
nombor neutron20
jisim atom relatif
40.969251163 ± 0.000000083 Da
g-factor
1.5509428571429 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
596.3 ± 1.7 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.145 ± 0.003
tarikh penemuan1941
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

42Sc

Nombor jisim42
nombor neutron21
jisim atom relatif
41.965516686 ± 0.000000165 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
680.72 ± 0.26 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1955
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

43Sc

Nombor jisim43
nombor neutron22
jisim atom relatif
42.961150425 ± 0.000001999 Da
g-factor
1.2931428571429 ± 0.0028571428571429
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.891 ± 0.012 h
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.27 ± 0.05
tarikh penemuan1935
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

44Sc

Nombor jisim44
nombor neutron23
jisim atom relatif
43.959402818 ± 0.000001884 Da
g-factor
1.249 ± 0.0025
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.0421 ± 0.0025 h
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.1 ± 0.05
tarikh penemuan1937
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

45Sc

Nombor jisim45
nombor neutron24
jisim atom relatif
44.955907051 ± 0.000000712 Da
g-factor
1.3582857142857 ± 0.000022857142857143
natural abundance
100
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.22 ± 0.002
tarikh penemuan1923
parity-

46Sc

Nombor jisim46
nombor neutron25
jisim atom relatif
45.955167034 ± 0.00000072 Da
g-factor
0.76 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
83.757 ± 0.014 d
Spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.119 ± 0.006
tarikh penemuan1936
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

47Sc

Nombor jisim47
nombor neutron26
jisim atom relatif
46.952402444 ± 0.000002072 Da
g-factor
1.5257142857143 ± 0.0057142857142857
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
3.3492 ± 0.0006 d
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.22 ± 0.03
tarikh penemuan1945
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

48Sc

Nombor jisim48
nombor neutron27
jisim atom relatif
47.952222903 ± 0.000005313 Da
g-factor
0.62283333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
43.67 ± 0.09 h
Spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1937
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

49Sc

Nombor jisim49
nombor neutron28
jisim atom relatif
48.950013159 ± 0.000002434 Da
g-factor
1.6028571428571 ± 0.0085714285714286
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
57.18 ± 0.13 m
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1940
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

50Sc

Nombor jisim50
nombor neutron29
jisim atom relatif
49.952187437 ± 0.0000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
102.5 ± 0.5 s
Spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1959
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

51Sc

Nombor jisim51
nombor neutron30
jisim atom relatif
50.953568838 ± 0.0000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12.4 ± 0.1 s
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1966
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

52Sc

Nombor jisim52
nombor neutron31
jisim atom relatif
51.95649617 ± 0.0000033 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1980
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

53Sc

Nombor jisim53
nombor neutron32
jisim atom relatif
52.958379173 ± 0.000019 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.4 ± 0.6 s
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1980
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

54Sc

Nombor jisim54
nombor neutron33
jisim atom relatif
53.963029359 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
526 ± 15 ms
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1990
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)16%

55Sc

Nombor jisim55
nombor neutron34
jisim atom relatif
54.966889637 ± 0.000067 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
96 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1990
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

56Sc

Nombor jisim56
nombor neutron35
jisim atom relatif
55.972607611 ± 0.000278761 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
26 ± 6 ms
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

57Sc

Nombor jisim57
nombor neutron36
jisim atom relatif
56.977048 ± 0.000193 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
22 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

58Sc

Nombor jisim58
nombor neutron37
jisim atom relatif
57.983382 ± 0.000204 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12 ± 5 ms
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1997
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

59Sc

Nombor jisim59
nombor neutron38
jisim atom relatif
58.988374 ± 0.000268 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

60Sc

Nombor jisim60
nombor neutron39
jisim atom relatif
59.995115 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

61Sc

Nombor jisim61
nombor neutron40
jisim atom relatif
61.000537 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2009
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

62Sc

Nombor jisim62
nombor neutron41
jisim atom relatif
62.007848 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2018
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

63Sc

Nombor jisim63
nombor neutron42
jisim atom relatif
63.014031 ± 0.000751 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube

sejarah

penemu atau perekaLars Nilson
tempat penemuanSweden
tarikh penemuan1879
EtimologiLatin: Scandia, Scandinavia.
sebutanSKAN-di-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (lautan)
0.0000006 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.00064 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5434
2p3.9454
2s6.4264
3d13.8801
3p11.5938
3s10.6602
4s16.3676