Skandi

Skandi (Sc)

chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21
Atomic Number21
Atomic Weight44.955908
mass number45
Group3
Period4
Blockd
protoni21 p+
nyutroni24 n0
elektroni21 e-
Animated Bohr model of Sc (Skandi)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
160 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
148 pm
Metallic Radius
144 pm
ionic radius
74.5 pm
Crystal Radius
88.5 pm
Van der Waals radius
215 pm
msongamano
2.99 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Skandi0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

nishati
proton affinity
914 kJ/mol
electron affinity
ionization energy
6.56149 eV/particle
ionization energy of Sc (Skandi)
enthalpy of vaporization
332.7 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
15.8 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
377.8 kJ/mol
elektroni
Mzingo elektroni2, 8, 9, 2
Bohr model: Sc (Skandi)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Sc (Skandi)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d1 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Sc (Skandi)
Orbital Diagram of Sc (Skandi)
oxidation number0, 1, 2, 3
electronegativity
1.36
Electrophilicity Index
0.8934589851890408 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3,109.15 K
Melting Point
1,814.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Kiwango utatu
appearance
Rangi
Silver
appearancesilvery white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
15.8 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.0000102 1/K
molar heat capacity
25.52 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.568 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
1.8 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000055 m Ω
superconductivity
0.05 K
Uga sumaku
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.000000088 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000003956 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.0002627
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
lattice constant
3.31 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
mechanical property
hardness
bulk modulus
57 GPa
shear modulus
29 GPa
Young's modulus
74 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.28
speed of sound
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIIA
IUPAC GroupIIIB
Glawe Number48
Mendeleev Number11
Pettifor Number20
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
892 kJ/mol
polarizability
97 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,383 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
27.2
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.025
quantum number2D3/2
space group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Scandium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes28
Natural Isotopes1

35Sc

mass number35
neutron number14
relative atomic mass
35.029093 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)

36Sc

mass number36
neutron number15
relative atomic mass
36.017338 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)

37Sc

mass number37
neutron number16
relative atomic mass
37.004058 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)

38Sc

mass number38
neutron number17
relative atomic mass
37.995438 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)

39Sc

mass number39
neutron number18
relative atomic mass
38.984784953 ± 0.000025765 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1988
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
p (proton emission)100%

40Sc

mass number40
neutron number19
relative atomic mass
39.977967275 ± 0.000003036 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
182.3 ± 0.7 ms
spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1955
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.44%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.017%

41Sc

mass number41
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
40.969251163 ± 0.000000083 Da
g-factor
1.5509428571429 ± 0.0004
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
596.3 ± 1.7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.145 ± 0.003
Uvumbuzi1941
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

42Sc

mass number42
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
41.965516686 ± 0.000000165 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
680.72 ± 0.26 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1955
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

43Sc

mass number43
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
42.961150425 ± 0.000001999 Da
g-factor
1.2931428571429 ± 0.0028571428571429
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.891 ± 0.012 h
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.27 ± 0.05
Uvumbuzi1935
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

44Sc

mass number44
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
43.959402818 ± 0.000001884 Da
g-factor
1.249 ± 0.0025
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.0421 ± 0.0025 h
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.1 ± 0.05
Uvumbuzi1937
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

45Sc

mass number45
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
44.955907051 ± 0.000000712 Da
g-factor
1.3582857142857 ± 0.000022857142857143
natural abundance
100
Unururifustable isotope
NusumaishaNot Radioactive ☢️
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.22 ± 0.002
Uvumbuzi1923
parity-

46Sc

mass number46
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
45.955167034 ± 0.00000072 Da
g-factor
0.76 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
83.757 ± 0.014 d
spin4
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.119 ± 0.006
Uvumbuzi1936
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

47Sc

mass number47
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
46.952402444 ± 0.000002072 Da
g-factor
1.5257142857143 ± 0.0057142857142857
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
3.3492 ± 0.0006 d
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.22 ± 0.03
Uvumbuzi1945
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

48Sc

mass number48
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
47.952222903 ± 0.000005313 Da
g-factor
0.62283333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
43.67 ± 0.09 h
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1937
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

49Sc

mass number49
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
48.950013159 ± 0.000002434 Da
g-factor
1.6028571428571 ± 0.0085714285714286
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
57.18 ± 0.13 m
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1940
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

50Sc

mass number50
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
49.952187437 ± 0.0000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
102.5 ± 0.5 s
spin5
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1959
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

51Sc

mass number51
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
50.953568838 ± 0.0000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
12.4 ± 0.1 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1966
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

52Sc

mass number52
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
51.95649617 ± 0.0000033 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
8.2 ± 0.2 s
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1980
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

53Sc

mass number53
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
52.958379173 ± 0.000019 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
2.4 ± 0.6 s
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1980
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

54Sc

mass number54
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
53.963029359 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
526 ± 15 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1990
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)16%

55Sc

mass number55
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
54.966889637 ± 0.000067 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
96 ± 2 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1990
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)17%
2n (2-neutron emission)

56Sc

mass number56
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
55.972607611 ± 0.000278761 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
26 ± 6 ms
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1997
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

57Sc

mass number57
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
56.977048 ± 0.000193 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
22 ± 2 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1997
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

58Sc

mass number58
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
57.983382 ± 0.000204 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
12 ± 5 ms
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1997
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

59Sc

mass number59
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
58.988374 ± 0.000268 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2009
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

60Sc

mass number60
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
59.995115 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2009
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

61Sc

mass number61
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
61.000537 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2009
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

62Sc

mass number62
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
62.007848 ± 0.000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi2018
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

63Sc

mass number63
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
63.014031 ± 0.000751 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube

historia

mgunduzi au mvumbuziLars Nilson
location of discoverySweden
Uvumbuzi1879
EtimolojiaLatin: Scandia, Scandinavia.
pronunciationSKAN-di-em (Kiingereza)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (Bahari)
0.0000006 mg/L
natural abundance (Mwili)
natural abundance (Kimondo)
0.00064 %
natural abundance (Jua)
0.000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5434
2p3.9454
2s6.4264
3d13.8801
3p11.5938
3s10.6602
4s16.3676