Thorijum, ²Torij

Thorijum, ²Torij (Th)

hemijski element sa atomskim brojem 90
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
Maseni broj232
Group
Period7
Blockf
Proton90 p+
Neutron142 n0
Elektron90 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Th (Thorijum, ²Torij)

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
180 pm
Molarni volumen
covalent radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionski radijus
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waalsov radijus
245 pm
gustoća
11,7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Thorijum, ²Torij0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240250pmAtomski RadijusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waalsov radijus

Chemical Property

energija
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Thorijum, ²Torij)
Toplota isparavanja
513,7 kJ/mol
toplota topljenja
16,11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
Elektron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohrov model atoma: Th (Thorijum, ²Torij)
Valentni elektron2
Lewis structure: Th (Thorijum, ²Torij)
electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Th (Thorijum, ²Torij)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Thorijum, ²Torij)
oksidacijsko stanje-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5.058,15 K
Melting Point
2.023,15 K
critical pressure
Kritična temperatura
Trojna tačka
appearance
boja
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27,32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Specifična električna provodljivost
6,7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000015 m Ω
Superprovodljivost
1,38 K
Magnetizam
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,000084
magnetic ordering
Kirijeva tačka
Néel temperature
struktura
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5,08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,27
Brzina zvuka
2.490 m/s
klasifikacija
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7,4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,001
Kvantni brojevi3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

Maseni broj208
broj neutrona118
relative atomic mass
208,017915348 ± 0,000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,4 ± 1,2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

Maseni broj209
broj neutrona119
relative atomic mass
209,017601 ± 0,000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

Maseni broj210
broj neutrona120
relative atomic mass
210,015093515 ± 0,000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
16 ± 3,6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

Maseni broj211
broj neutrona121
relative atomic mass
211,014896923 ± 0,000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
48 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1995
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

Maseni broj212
broj neutrona122
relative atomic mass
212,01300157 ± 0,000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
31,7 ± 1,3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

Maseni broj213
broj neutrona123
relative atomic mass
213,01301147 ± 0,000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
144 ± 21 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

Maseni broj214
broj neutrona124
relative atomic mass
214,01148148 ± 0,000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
87 ± 10 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

Maseni broj215
broj neutrona125
relative atomic mass
215,01172464 ± 0,0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,35 ± 0,14 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

Maseni broj216
broj neutrona126
relative atomic mass
216,011055933 ± 0,00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
26,28 ± 0,16 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

Maseni broj217
broj neutrona127
relative atomic mass
217,013103443 ± 0,000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
248 ± 4 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

Maseni broj218
broj neutrona128
relative atomic mass
218,013276248 ± 0,000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
122 ± 5 ns
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

Maseni broj219
broj neutrona129
relative atomic mass
219,015526432 ± 0,000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,023 ± 0,018 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

Maseni broj220
broj neutrona130
relative atomic mass
220,015769866 ± 0,000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
10,2 ± 0,3 us
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

Maseni broj221
broj neutrona131
relative atomic mass
221,018185757 ± 0,000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,75 ± 0,02 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

Maseni broj222
broj neutrona132
relative atomic mass
222,01846822 ± 0,000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,24 ± 0,03 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

Maseni broj223
broj neutrona133
relative atomic mass
223,020811083 ± 0,000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
600 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1952
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

Maseni broj224
broj neutrona134
relative atomic mass
224,021466137 ± 0,00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,04 ± 0,02 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

Maseni broj225
broj neutrona135
relative atomic mass
225,023950975 ± 0,000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
8,75 ± 0,04 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

Maseni broj226
broj neutrona136
relative atomic mass
226,024903699 ± 0,00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
30,7 ± 0,03 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

Maseni broj227
broj neutrona137
relative atomic mass
227,027702546 ± 0,000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,693 ± 0,004 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1906
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

Maseni broj228
broj neutrona138
relative atomic mass
228,028739741 ± 0,000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,9125 ± 0,0007 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1905
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

Maseni broj229
broj neutrona139
relative atomic mass
229,031761357 ± 0,000002581 Da
g-factor
0,184 ± 0,016
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
7,916 ± 0,017 ky
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,11 ± 0,06
datum otkrića1947
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

Maseni broj230
broj neutrona140
relative atomic mass
230,033132267 ± 0,000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,02 ± 0,02
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
75,4 ± 0,3 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1907
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

Maseni broj231
broj neutrona141
relative atomic mass
231,036302764 ± 0,000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
25,52 ± 0,01 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1911
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

Maseni broj232
broj neutrona142
relative atomic mass
232,038053606 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99,98 ± 0,02
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
14 ± 0,1 Gy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1898
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

Maseni broj233
broj neutrona143
relative atomic mass
233,041580126 ± 0,000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
21,83 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1935
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

Maseni broj234
broj neutrona144
relative atomic mass
234,043599801 ± 0,000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
24,107 ± 0,024 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1900
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

Maseni broj235
broj neutrona145
relative atomic mass
235,047255 ± 0,000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
7,2 ± 0,1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

Maseni broj236
broj neutrona146
relative atomic mass
236,049657 ± 0,000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
37,3 ± 1,5 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

Maseni broj237
broj neutrona147
relative atomic mass
237,053629 ± 0,000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,8 ± 0,5 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića1993
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

Maseni broj238
broj neutrona148
relative atomic mass
238,056388 ± 0,000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
9,4 ± 2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
datum otkrića1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

Maseni broj239
broj neutrona149
relative atomic mass
239,060655 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
datum otkrića
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

historija

otkrivač ili izumiteljJöns Berzelius
mjesto otkrićaSweden
datum otkrića1828
EtimologijaNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (engleski)

izvor

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,6 mg/kg
natural abundance (okean)
0,000001 mg/L
natural abundance (ljudsko tijelo)
0 %
natural abundance (Meteoroidi)
0,0000039 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants