Tori

Tori (Th)

chemical element with the atomic number of 90
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
Rhif màs232
Group
Period7
Blockf
Proton90 p+
Niwtron142 n0
Electron90 e-
Animated Bohr model of Th (Tori)

Nodwedd Ffisegol

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
245 pm
density
11.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Tori0255075100125150175200225250pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Nodwedd Gemegol

egni
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Tori)
enthalpy of vaporization
513.7 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
16.11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
Electron
plisgyn yr electron2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohr model: Th (Tori)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Tori)
trefn yr electronnau[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Th (Tori)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Tori)
Cyflwr ocsidiad-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegatifedd
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
cyflwr sylfaenol mater
cyflwr materSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5,058.15 K
Melting Point
2,023.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
lliw
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
Mynegrif plygiant
nodwedd ffisegol gwrthrych
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
dargludedd trydanol
6.7 MS/m
Gwrthedd
0.00000015 m Ω
superconductivity
1.38 K
magnetism
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000084
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strwythur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
nodwedd mecanyddol deunyddiau
hardness
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.27
speed of sound
2,490 m/s
classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.001
quantum number3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

Rhif màs208
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
208.017915348 ± 0.000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
2.4 ± 1.2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

Rhif màs209
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
209.017601 ± 0.000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

Rhif màs210
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
210.015093515 ± 0.000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
16 ± 3.6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

Rhif màs211
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
211.014896923 ± 0.000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
48 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1995
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

Rhif màs212
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
212.01300157 ± 0.000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
31.7 ± 1.3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

Rhif màs213
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
213.01301147 ± 0.000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
144 ± 21 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

Rhif màs214
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
214.01148148 ± 0.000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
87 ± 10 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

Rhif màs215
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
215.01172464 ± 0.0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.35 ± 0.14 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

Rhif màs216
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
216.011055933 ± 0.00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
26.28 ± 0.16 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

Rhif màs217
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
217.013103443 ± 0.000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
248 ± 4 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

Rhif màs218
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
218.013276248 ± 0.000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
122 ± 5 ns
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

Rhif màs219
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
219.015526432 ± 0.000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.023 ± 0.018 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

Rhif màs220
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
220.015769866 ± 0.000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
10.2 ± 0.3 us
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

Rhif màs221
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
221.018185757 ± 0.000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.75 ± 0.02 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

Rhif màs222
neutron number132
relative atomic mass
222.01846822 ± 0.000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
2.24 ± 0.03 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

Rhif màs223
neutron number133
relative atomic mass
223.020811083 ± 0.000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
600 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1952
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

Rhif màs224
neutron number134
relative atomic mass
224.021466137 ± 0.00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.04 ± 0.02 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

Rhif màs225
neutron number135
relative atomic mass
225.023950975 ± 0.000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
8.75 ± 0.04 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

Rhif màs226
neutron number136
relative atomic mass
226.024903699 ± 0.00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
30.7 ± 0.03 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

Rhif màs227
neutron number137
relative atomic mass
227.027702546 ± 0.000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
18.693 ± 0.004 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1906
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

Rhif màs228
neutron number138
relative atomic mass
228.028739741 ± 0.000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
1.9125 ± 0.0007 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1905
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

Rhif màs229
neutron number139
relative atomic mass
229.031761357 ± 0.000002581 Da
g-factor
0.184 ± 0.016
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
7.916 ± 0.017 ky
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.11 ± 0.06
dyddiad darganfod1947
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

Rhif màs230
neutron number140
relative atomic mass
230.033132267 ± 0.000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.02 ± 0.02
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
75.4 ± 0.3 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1907
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

Rhif màs231
neutron number141
relative atomic mass
231.036302764 ± 0.000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
25.52 ± 0.01 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1911
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

Rhif màs232
neutron number142
relative atomic mass
232.038053606 ± 0.000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99.98 ± 0.02
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
14 ± 0.1 Gy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1898
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

Rhif màs233
neutron number143
relative atomic mass
233.041580126 ± 0.000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
21.83 ± 0.04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1935
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

Rhif màs234
neutron number144
relative atomic mass
234.043599801 ± 0.000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
24.107 ± 0.024 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1900
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

Rhif màs235
neutron number145
relative atomic mass
235.047255 ± 0.000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
7.2 ± 0.1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

Rhif màs236
neutron number146
relative atomic mass
236.049657 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
37.3 ± 1.5 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

Rhif màs237
neutron number147
relative atomic mass
237.053629 ± 0.000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
4.8 ± 0.5 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod1993
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

Rhif màs238
neutron number148
relative atomic mass
238.056388 ± 0.000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
9.4 ± 2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
dyddiad darganfod1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

Rhif màs239
neutron number149
relative atomic mass
239.060655 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Dadfeilio ymbelydrol☢️ elfen ymbelydrol
Hanner oes
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
dyddiad darganfod
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

hanes

darganfyddwr neu ddyfeisiwrJöns Berzelius
man darganfodSweden
dyddiad darganfod1828
geirdarddiadNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
ynganiadTHOR-i-em (Saesneg)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9.6 mg/kg
natural abundance (cefnfor)
0.000001 mg/L
natural abundance (corff dynol)
0 %
natural abundance (Awyrfaen)
0.0000039 %
natural abundance (Haul)
0.00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants