Torij

Torij (Th)

chemical element with the atomic number of 90
Atomski broj90
Relativna atomska masa232.0377
Maseni broj232
Skupina
Perioda7
Blokf
proton90 p+
neutron142 n0
elektron90 e-
Animated Bohrov model atoma of Th (Torij)

Physical Property

Atomski Radijus
180 pm
Molni volumen
Kovalentni Radijus
175 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionski radijus
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
245 pm
gustoća
11,7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Torij0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240250pmAtomski RadijusKovalentni RadijusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Kemijsko Svojstvo

energija
proton affinity
Elektronski afinitet
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Torij)
Toplina isparivanja
513,7 kJ/mol
toplina taljenja
16,11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronska ljuska2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohrov model atoma: Th (Torij)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Torij)
electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohrov model atoma of Th (Torij)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Torij)
Oksidacijski broj-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativnost
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
agregatno stanjeČvrsto
gaseous state of matter
Vrelište
5.058,15 K
Talište
2.023,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Trojna točka
appearance
boja
Srebrna
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
Indeks prelamanja
thermodynamic material property
Toplinska vodljivost
Toplinsko istezanje
0,000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27,32 J/(mol K)
Specifični toplinski kapacitet
0,118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6,7 MS/m
Električna otpornost i provodnost
0,00000015 m Ω
Supravodljivost
1,38 K
Magnetizam
typeparamagnetic
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Mass)
0,0000000072 m³/Kg
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Molar)
0,0000000017 m³/mol
Magnetna susceptibilnost (Volume)
0,000084
magnetic ordering
Curieva temperatura
Néel temperature
struktura
Kristalna strukturaKubna plošno centrirana (FCC)
lattice constant
5,08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Tvrdoća
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Youngov modul elastičnosti
79 GPa
Poissonov omjer
0,27
brzina zvuka
2.490 m/s
classification
KategorijaAktinoidi, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Nuklearni udarni presjek
7,4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,001
Kvantni brojevi3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stabilni izotopi0
Nestabilni izotopi32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

Maseni broj208
neutron number118
Relativna atomska masa
208,017915348 ± 0,000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,4 ± 1,2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma2010
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

Maseni broj209
neutron number119
Relativna atomska masa
209,017601 ± 0,000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

Maseni broj210
neutron number120
Relativna atomska masa
210,015093515 ± 0,000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
16 ± 3,6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1995
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

Maseni broj211
neutron number121
Relativna atomska masa
211,014896923 ± 0,000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
48 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1995
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

Maseni broj212
neutron number122
Relativna atomska masa
212,01300157 ± 0,000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
31,7 ± 1,3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1980
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

Maseni broj213
neutron number123
Relativna atomska masa
213,01301147 ± 0,000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
144 ± 21 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1968
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

Maseni broj214
neutron number124
Relativna atomska masa
214,01148148 ± 0,000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
87 ± 10 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1968
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

Maseni broj215
neutron number125
Relativna atomska masa
215,01172464 ± 0,0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,35 ± 0,14 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1968
Parnost-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

Maseni broj216
neutron number126
Relativna atomska masa
216,011055933 ± 0,00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
26,28 ± 0,16 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1968
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

Maseni broj217
neutron number127
Relativna atomska masa
217,013103443 ± 0,000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
248 ± 4 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1968
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

Maseni broj218
neutron number128
Relativna atomska masa
218,013276248 ± 0,000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
122 ± 5 ns
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1973
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

Maseni broj219
neutron number129
Relativna atomska masa
219,015526432 ± 0,000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,023 ± 0,018 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1973
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

Maseni broj220
neutron number130
Relativna atomska masa
220,015769866 ± 0,000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
10,2 ± 0,3 us
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1973
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

Maseni broj221
neutron number131
Relativna atomska masa
221,018185757 ± 0,000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,75 ± 0,02 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1970
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

Maseni broj222
neutron number132
Relativna atomska masa
222,01846822 ± 0,000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
2,24 ± 0,03 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1970
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

Maseni broj223
neutron number133
Relativna atomska masa
223,020811083 ± 0,000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
600 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1952
Parnost

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

Maseni broj224
neutron number134
Relativna atomska masa
224,021466137 ± 0,00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,04 ± 0,02 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1949
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

Maseni broj225
neutron number135
Relativna atomska masa
225,023950975 ± 0,000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
8,75 ± 0,04 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1949
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

Maseni broj226
neutron number136
Relativna atomska masa
226,024903699 ± 0,00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
30,7 ± 0,03 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1948
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

Maseni broj227
neutron number137
Relativna atomska masa
227,027702546 ± 0,000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
18,693 ± 0,004 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1906
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

Maseni broj228
neutron number138
Relativna atomska masa
228,028739741 ± 0,000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
1,9125 ± 0,0007 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1905
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

Maseni broj229
neutron number139
Relativna atomska masa
229,031761357 ± 0,000002581 Da
g-factor
0,184 ± 0,016
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
7,916 ± 0,017 ky
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,11 ± 0,06
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1947
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

Maseni broj230
neutron number140
Relativna atomska masa
230,033132267 ± 0,000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,02 ± 0,02
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
75,4 ± 0,3 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1907
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

Maseni broj231
neutron number141
Relativna atomska masa
231,036302764 ± 0,000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
25,52 ± 0,01 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1911
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

Maseni broj232
neutron number142
Relativna atomska masa
232,038053606 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99,98 ± 0,02
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
14 ± 0,1 Gy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1898
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

Maseni broj233
neutron number143
Relativna atomska masa
233,041580126 ± 0,000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
21,83 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1935
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

Maseni broj234
neutron number144
Relativna atomska masa
234,043599801 ± 0,000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
24,107 ± 0,024 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1900
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

Maseni broj235
neutron number145
Relativna atomska masa
235,047255 ± 0,000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
7,2 ± 0,1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1969
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

Maseni broj236
neutron number146
Relativna atomska masa
236,049657 ± 0,000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
37,3 ± 1,5 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1973
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

Maseni broj237
neutron number147
Relativna atomska masa
237,053629 ± 0,000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
4,8 ± 0,5 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1993
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

Maseni broj238
neutron number148
Relativna atomska masa
238,056388 ± 0,000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
9,4 ± 2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1999
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

Maseni broj239
neutron number149
Relativna atomska masa
239,060655 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktivnost☢️ radioactive element
Vrijeme poluraspada
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma
Parnost+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

povijest

otkrio/izumioJöns Berzelius
location of discoverySweden
vrijeme otkrića ili izuma1828
EtimologijaNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (engleski)

source

Obilnost
Zastupljenost u Zemljinoj kori
9,6 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
0,000001 mg/L
natural abundance (tijelo)
0 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0000039 %
natural abundance (Sunce)
0,00000003 %
Zastupljenost u svemiru
0,00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants