Torium

Torium (Th)

chemical element with the atomic number of 90
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
Nombor jisim232
Group
Period7
Blockf
proton90 p+
neutron142 n0
Elektron90 e-
Animated Model Bohr of Th (Torium)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
180 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Jejari van der Waals
245 pm
ketumpatan
11.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Torium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240250pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Torium)
Entalpi pengewapan
513.7 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
16.11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Model Bohr: Th (Torium)
Elektron valens2
Teori ion Lewis: Th (Torium)
tatarajah elektron[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Model Bohr of Th (Torium)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Torium)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Keelektronegatifan
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5,058.15 K
Melting Point
2,023.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Silver
rupasilvery, often with black tarnish
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
Pengembangan terma
0.000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Kekonduksian elektrik
6.7 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
0.00000015 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
1.38 K
kemagnetan
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000084
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
3 MPa
Modulus pukal
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Nisbah Poisson
0.27
Kelajuan bunyi
2,490 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.001
Nombor kuantum3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

Nombor jisim208
nombor neutron118
jisim atom relatif
208.017915348 ± 0.000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.4 ± 1.2 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2010
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

209Th

Nombor jisim209
nombor neutron119
jisim atom relatif
209.017601 ± 0.000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

Nombor jisim210
nombor neutron120
jisim atom relatif
210.015093515 ± 0.000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
16 ± 3.6 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1995
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

Nombor jisim211
nombor neutron121
jisim atom relatif
211.014896923 ± 0.000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
48 ± 20 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1995
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

Nombor jisim212
nombor neutron122
jisim atom relatif
212.01300157 ± 0.000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
31.7 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1980
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

Nombor jisim213
nombor neutron123
jisim atom relatif
213.01301147 ± 0.000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
144 ± 21 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1968
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

Nombor jisim214
nombor neutron124
jisim atom relatif
214.01148148 ± 0.000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
87 ± 10 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

Nombor jisim215
nombor neutron125
jisim atom relatif
215.01172464 ± 0.0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.35 ± 0.14 s
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1968
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

216Th

Nombor jisim216
nombor neutron126
jisim atom relatif
216.011055933 ± 0.00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
26.28 ± 0.16 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

Nombor jisim217
nombor neutron127
jisim atom relatif
217.013103443 ± 0.000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
248 ± 4 us
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1968
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

218Th

Nombor jisim218
nombor neutron128
jisim atom relatif
218.013276248 ± 0.000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
122 ± 5 ns
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

219Th

Nombor jisim219
nombor neutron129
jisim atom relatif
219.015526432 ± 0.000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.023 ± 0.018 us
Spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

Nombor jisim220
nombor neutron130
jisim atom relatif
220.015769866 ± 0.000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10.2 ± 0.3 us
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

Nombor jisim221
nombor neutron131
jisim atom relatif
221.018185757 ± 0.000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.75 ± 0.02 ms
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1970
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

222Th

Nombor jisim222
nombor neutron132
jisim atom relatif
222.01846822 ± 0.000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.24 ± 0.03 ms
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1970
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

Nombor jisim223
nombor neutron133
jisim atom relatif
223.020811083 ± 0.000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
600 ± 20 ms
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1952
parity

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

224Th

Nombor jisim224
nombor neutron134
jisim atom relatif
224.021466137 ± 0.00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.04 ± 0.02 s
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1949
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

Nombor jisim225
nombor neutron135
jisim atom relatif
225.023950975 ± 0.000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
8.75 ± 0.04 m
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1949
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

Nombor jisim226
nombor neutron136
jisim atom relatif
226.024903699 ± 0.00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
30.7 ± 0.03 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1948
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

Nombor jisim227
nombor neutron137
jisim atom relatif
227.027702546 ± 0.000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
18.693 ± 0.004 d
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1906
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

228Th

Nombor jisim228
nombor neutron138
jisim atom relatif
228.028739741 ± 0.000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
1.9125 ± 0.0007 y
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1905
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

Nombor jisim229
nombor neutron139
jisim atom relatif
229.031761357 ± 0.000002581 Da
g-factor
0.184 ± 0.016
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.916 ± 0.017 ky
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.11 ± 0.06
tarikh penemuan1947
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%

230Th

Nombor jisim230
nombor neutron140
jisim atom relatif
230.033132267 ± 0.000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.02 ± 0.02
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
75.4 ± 0.3 ky
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1907
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

Nombor jisim231
nombor neutron141
jisim atom relatif
231.036302764 ± 0.000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
25.52 ± 0.01 h
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1911
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

232Th

Nombor jisim232
nombor neutron142
jisim atom relatif
232.038053606 ± 0.000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99.98 ± 0.02
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
14 ± 0.1 Gy
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1898
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

Nombor jisim233
nombor neutron143
jisim atom relatif
233.041580126 ± 0.000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
21.83 ± 0.04 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1935
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

234Th

Nombor jisim234
nombor neutron144
jisim atom relatif
234.043599801 ± 0.000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
24.107 ± 0.024 d
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1900
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

Nombor jisim235
nombor neutron145
jisim atom relatif
235.047255 ± 0.000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
7.2 ± 0.1 m
Spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1969
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

236Th

Nombor jisim236
nombor neutron146
jisim atom relatif
236.049657 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
37.3 ± 1.5 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1973
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

237Th

Nombor jisim237
nombor neutron147
jisim atom relatif
237.053629 ± 0.000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
4.8 ± 0.5 m
Spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1993
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

238Th

Nombor jisim238
nombor neutron148
jisim atom relatif
238.056388 ± 0.000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
9.4 ± 2 m
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan1999
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%

239Th

Nombor jisim239
nombor neutron149
jisim atom relatif
239.060655 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

sejarah

penemu atau perekaJöns Berzelius
tempat penemuanSweden
tarikh penemuan1828
EtimologiNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
sebutanTHOR-i-em (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9.6 mg/kg
natural abundance (lautan)
0.000001 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.0000039 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants