Torju[m]

Torju[m] (Th)

chemical element with the atomic number of 90
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
mass number232
Group
Period7
Blockf
proton90 p+
neutron142 n0
elettron90 e-
Animated Bohr model of Th (Torju[m])

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
245 pm
densità
11.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Torju[m]0255075100125150175200225250pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

enerġija
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Torju[m])
enthalpy of vaporization
513.7 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
16.11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
elettron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohr model: Th (Torju[m])
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Torju[m])
electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Th (Torju[m])
Orbital Diagram of Th (Torju[m])
oxidation number-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5,058.15 K
Melting Point
2,023.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kulur
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6.7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000015 m Ω
superconductivity
1.38 K
magnetism
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000084
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.27
speed of sound
2,490 m/s
classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.001
quantum number3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

mass number208
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
208.017915348 ± 0.000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.4 ± 1.2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

mass number209
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
209.017601 ± 0.000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

mass number210
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
210.015093515 ± 0.000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
16 ± 3.6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

mass number211
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
211.014896923 ± 0.000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1995
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

mass number212
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
212.01300157 ± 0.000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
31.7 ± 1.3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

mass number213
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
213.01301147 ± 0.000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
144 ± 21 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

mass number214
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
214.01148148 ± 0.000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
87 ± 10 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

mass number215
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
215.01172464 ± 0.0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.35 ± 0.14 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

mass number216
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
216.011055933 ± 0.00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
26.28 ± 0.16 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

mass number217
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
217.013103443 ± 0.000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
248 ± 4 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

mass number218
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
218.013276248 ± 0.000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
122 ± 5 ns
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

mass number219
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
219.015526432 ± 0.000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.023 ± 0.018 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

mass number220
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
220.015769866 ± 0.000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
10.2 ± 0.3 us
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

mass number221
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
221.018185757 ± 0.000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.75 ± 0.02 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

mass number222
neutron number132
relative atomic mass
222.01846822 ± 0.000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.24 ± 0.03 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

mass number223
neutron number133
relative atomic mass
223.020811083 ± 0.000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
600 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1952
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

mass number224
neutron number134
relative atomic mass
224.021466137 ± 0.00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.04 ± 0.02 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

mass number225
neutron number135
relative atomic mass
225.023950975 ± 0.000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.75 ± 0.04 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

mass number226
neutron number136
relative atomic mass
226.024903699 ± 0.00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30.7 ± 0.03 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

mass number227
neutron number137
relative atomic mass
227.027702546 ± 0.000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18.693 ± 0.004 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1906
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

mass number228
neutron number138
relative atomic mass
228.028739741 ± 0.000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.9125 ± 0.0007 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1905
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

mass number229
neutron number139
relative atomic mass
229.031761357 ± 0.000002581 Da
g-factor
0.184 ± 0.016
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7.916 ± 0.017 ky
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.11 ± 0.06
time of discovery or invention1947
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

mass number230
neutron number140
relative atomic mass
230.033132267 ± 0.000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.02 ± 0.02
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
75.4 ± 0.3 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1907
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

mass number231
neutron number141
relative atomic mass
231.036302764 ± 0.000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
25.52 ± 0.01 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1911
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

mass number232
neutron number142
relative atomic mass
232.038053606 ± 0.000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99.98 ± 0.02
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14 ± 0.1 Gy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1898
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

mass number233
neutron number143
relative atomic mass
233.041580126 ± 0.000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21.83 ± 0.04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1935
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

mass number234
neutron number144
relative atomic mass
234.043599801 ± 0.000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
24.107 ± 0.024 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1900
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

mass number235
neutron number145
relative atomic mass
235.047255 ± 0.000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7.2 ± 0.1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

mass number236
neutron number146
relative atomic mass
236.049657 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
37.3 ± 1.5 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

mass number237
neutron number147
relative atomic mass
237.053629 ± 0.000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.8 ± 0.5 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1993
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

mass number238
neutron number148
relative atomic mass
238.056388 ± 0.000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.4 ± 2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

mass number239
neutron number149
relative atomic mass
239.060655 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

storja

discoverer or inventorJöns Berzelius
location of discoverySweden
time of discovery or invention1828
etimoloġijaNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (Ingliż)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9.6 mg/kg
natural abundance (ocean)
0.000001 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
0 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0.0000039 %
natural abundance (Xemx)
0.00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants