Tòri

Tòri (Th)

component quimic
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
mass number232
Group
Period7
Blockf
proton90 p+
neutron142 n0
electron90 e-
Animated Bohr model of Th (Tòri)

Proprietat Fisica

Rai Atomic
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Rai de van der Waals
245 pm
densitat
11.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Tòri0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240250pmRai AtomicCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusRai de van der Waals

Chemical Property

energia
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Tòri)
enthalpy of vaporization
513.7 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
16.11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
electron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohr model: Th (Tòri)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Tòri)
electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Th (Tòri)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Tòri)
oxidation number-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativitat
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
estat de la matèriaSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5058.15 K
Melting Point
2023.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Ponch triple
appearance
Color
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
Indici de refraccion
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6.7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000015 m Ω
superconductivity
1.38 K
magnetism
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000084
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
estructura
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
Duretat
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.27
speed of sound
2490 m/s
classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.001
quantum number3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

mass number208
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
208.017915348 ± 0.000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
2.4 ± 1.2 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

mass number209
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
209.017601 ± 0.000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

mass number210
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
210.015093515 ± 0.000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
16 ± 3.6 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

mass number211
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
211.014896923 ± 0.000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
48 ± 20 ms
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1995
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

mass number212
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
212.01300157 ± 0.000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
31.7 ± 1.3 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

mass number213
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
213.01301147 ± 0.000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
144 ± 21 ms
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

mass number214
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
214.01148148 ± 0.000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
87 ± 10 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

mass number215
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
215.01172464 ± 0.0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.35 ± 0.14 s
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

mass number216
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
216.011055933 ± 0.00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
26.28 ± 0.16 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

mass number217
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
217.013103443 ± 0.000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
248 ± 4 us
Espin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

mass number218
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
218.013276248 ± 0.000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
122 ± 5 ns
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

mass number219
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
219.015526432 ± 0.000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.023 ± 0.018 us
Espin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

mass number220
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
220.015769866 ± 0.000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
10.2 ± 0.3 us
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

mass number221
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
221.018185757 ± 0.000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.75 ± 0.02 ms
Espin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

mass number222
neutron number132
relative atomic mass
222.01846822 ± 0.000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
2.24 ± 0.03 ms
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

mass number223
neutron number133
relative atomic mass
223.020811083 ± 0.000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
600 ± 20 ms
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1952
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

mass number224
neutron number134
relative atomic mass
224.021466137 ± 0.00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.04 ± 0.02 s
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

mass number225
neutron number135
relative atomic mass
225.023950975 ± 0.000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
8.75 ± 0.04 m
Espin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

mass number226
neutron number136
relative atomic mass
226.024903699 ± 0.00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
30.7 ± 0.03 m
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

mass number227
neutron number137
relative atomic mass
227.027702546 ± 0.000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
18.693 ± 0.004 d
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1906
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

mass number228
neutron number138
relative atomic mass
228.028739741 ± 0.000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
1.9125 ± 0.0007 y
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1905
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

mass number229
neutron number139
relative atomic mass
229.031761357 ± 0.000002581 Da
g-factor
0.184 ± 0.016
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
7.916 ± 0.017 ky
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.11 ± 0.06
data de descobèrta1947
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

mass number230
neutron number140
relative atomic mass
230.033132267 ± 0.000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.02 ± 0.02
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
75.4 ± 0.3 ky
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1907
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

mass number231
neutron number141
relative atomic mass
231.036302764 ± 0.000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
25.52 ± 0.01 h
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1911
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

mass number232
neutron number142
relative atomic mass
232.038053606 ± 0.000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99.98 ± 0.02
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
14 ± 0.1 Gy
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1898
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

mass number233
neutron number143
relative atomic mass
233.041580126 ± 0.000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
21.83 ± 0.04 m
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1935
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

mass number234
neutron number144
relative atomic mass
234.043599801 ± 0.000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
24.107 ± 0.024 d
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1900
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

mass number235
neutron number145
relative atomic mass
235.047255 ± 0.000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
7.2 ± 0.1 m
Espin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

mass number236
neutron number146
relative atomic mass
236.049657 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
37.3 ± 1.5 m
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

mass number237
neutron number147
relative atomic mass
237.053629 ± 0.000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
4.8 ± 0.5 m
Espin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta1993
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

mass number238
neutron number148
relative atomic mass
238.056388 ± 0.000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
9.4 ± 2 m
Espin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
data de descobèrta1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

mass number239
neutron number149
relative atomic mass
239.060655 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioactivitat☢️ radioactive element
Semivida
Espin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
data de descobèrta
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

istòria

descobridor o inventaireJöns Berzelius
luòc de descobèrtaSweden
data de descobèrta1828
EtimologiaNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (English)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9.6 mg/kg
natural abundance (Ocean)
0.000001 mg/L
natural abundance (còs uman)
0 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0.0000039 %
natural abundance (Solelh)
0.00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants