Torium, ²Thoriumi

Torium, ²Thoriumi (Th)

komponim kimik
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
Numri i masës232
Group
Period7
Blockf
protoni90 p+
neutroni142 n0
elektroni90 e-
Animated Bohr model of Th (Torium, ²Thoriumi)

Tipar Fizik

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
245 pm
density
11,7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Torium, ²Thoriumi0255075100125150175200225250pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energjia
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Torium, ²Thoriumi)
enthalpy of vaporization
513,7 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
16,11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
elektroni
electron shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohr model: Th (Torium, ²Thoriumi)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Torium, ²Thoriumi)
konfigurimi i elektronit[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Th (Torium, ²Thoriumi)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Torium, ²Thoriumi)
oxidation number-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegativiteti
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
gjendja agregate e materiesSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5 058,15 K
Melting Point
2 023,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Ngjyra
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27,32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6,7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000015 m Ω
Superpërcjellshmëria
1,38 K
Magnetizimi
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,000084
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strukturë
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5,08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,27
Shpejtësia e zërit
2 490 m/s
klasifikim
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7,4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,001
numër kuantik3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

Numri i masës208
numri i neutroneve118
relative atomic mass
208,017915348 ± 0,000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,4 ± 1,2 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2010
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

209Th

Numri i masës209
numri i neutroneve119
relative atomic mass
209,017601 ± 0,000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity-

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

Numri i masës210
numri i neutroneve120
relative atomic mass
210,015093515 ± 0,000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
16 ± 3,6 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1995
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

Numri i masës211
numri i neutroneve121
relative atomic mass
211,014896923 ± 0,000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48 ± 20 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1995
parity-

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

Numri i masës212
numri i neutroneve122
relative atomic mass
212,01300157 ± 0,000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
31,7 ± 1,3 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1980
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

Numri i masës213
numri i neutroneve123
relative atomic mass
213,01301147 ± 0,000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
144 ± 21 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1968
parity-

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

Numri i masës214
numri i neutroneve124
relative atomic mass
214,01148148 ± 0,000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
87 ± 10 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1968
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

Numri i masës215
numri i neutroneve125
relative atomic mass
215,01172464 ± 0,0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,35 ± 0,14 s
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1968
parity-

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

216Th

Numri i masës216
numri i neutroneve126
relative atomic mass
216,011055933 ± 0,00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
26,28 ± 0,16 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1968
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

Numri i masës217
numri i neutroneve127
relative atomic mass
217,013103443 ± 0,000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
248 ± 4 us
Spini9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1968
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

218Th

Numri i masës218
numri i neutroneve128
relative atomic mass
218,013276248 ± 0,000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
122 ± 5 ns
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1973
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

219Th

Numri i masës219
numri i neutroneve129
relative atomic mass
219,015526432 ± 0,000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,023 ± 0,018 us
Spini9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1973
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

Numri i masës220
numri i neutroneve130
relative atomic mass
220,015769866 ± 0,000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
10,2 ± 0,3 us
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1973
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

Numri i masës221
numri i neutroneve131
relative atomic mass
221,018185757 ± 0,000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,75 ± 0,02 ms
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1970
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

222Th

Numri i masës222
numri i neutroneve132
relative atomic mass
222,01846822 ± 0,000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,24 ± 0,03 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1970
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

Numri i masës223
numri i neutroneve133
relative atomic mass
223,020811083 ± 0,000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
600 ± 20 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1952
parity

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

224Th

Numri i masës224
numri i neutroneve134
relative atomic mass
224,021466137 ± 0,00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,04 ± 0,02 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1949
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

Numri i masës225
numri i neutroneve135
relative atomic mass
225,023950975 ± 0,000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8,75 ± 0,04 m
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1949
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

Numri i masës226
numri i neutroneve136
relative atomic mass
226,024903699 ± 0,00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30,7 ± 0,03 m
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1948
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

Numri i masës227
numri i neutroneve137
relative atomic mass
227,027702546 ± 0,000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,693 ± 0,004 d
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1906
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

228Th

Numri i masës228
numri i neutroneve138
relative atomic mass
228,028739741 ± 0,000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,9125 ± 0,0007 y
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1905
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

Numri i masës229
numri i neutroneve139
relative atomic mass
229,031761357 ± 0,000002581 Da
g-factor
0,184 ± 0,016
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7,916 ± 0,017 ky
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,11 ± 0,06
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1947
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%

230Th

Numri i masës230
numri i neutroneve140
relative atomic mass
230,033132267 ± 0,000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,02 ± 0,02
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
75,4 ± 0,3 ky
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1907
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

Numri i masës231
numri i neutroneve141
relative atomic mass
231,036302764 ± 0,000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
25,52 ± 0,01 h
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1911
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

232Th

Numri i masës232
numri i neutroneve142
relative atomic mass
232,038053606 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99,98 ± 0,02
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14 ± 0,1 Gy
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1898
parity+

decay modeintensitet
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

Numri i masës233
numri i neutroneve143
relative atomic mass
233,041580126 ± 0,000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21,83 ± 0,04 m
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1935
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

234Th

Numri i masës234
numri i neutroneve144
relative atomic mass
234,043599801 ± 0,000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
24,107 ± 0,024 d
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1900
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

Numri i masës235
numri i neutroneve145
relative atomic mass
235,047255 ± 0,000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7,2 ± 0,1 m
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1969
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

236Th

Numri i masës236
numri i neutroneve146
relative atomic mass
236,049657 ± 0,000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
37,3 ± 1,5 m
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1973
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

237Th

Numri i masës237
numri i neutroneve147
relative atomic mass
237,053629 ± 0,000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,8 ± 0,5 m
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1993
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

238Th

Numri i masës238
numri i neutroneve148
relative atomic mass
238,056388 ± 0,000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9,4 ± 2 m
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1999
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

239Th

Numri i masës239
numri i neutroneve149
relative atomic mass
239,060655 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

historia

zbuluesJöns Berzelius
vendndodhja e zbulimitSweden
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1828
EtimologjiaNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (anglisht)

burim

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,6 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oqeani)
0,000001 mg/L
natural abundance (Trupi i njeriut)
0 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0000039 %
natural abundance (Diell)
0,00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants