Thori

Thori (Th)

chemical element with the atomic number of 90
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
mass number232
Group
Period7
Blockf
protoni90 p+
nyutroni142 n0
elektroni90 e-
Animated Bohr model of Th (Thori)

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
245 pm
msongamano
11.7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Thori0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240250pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

nishati
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Thori)
enthalpy of vaporization
513.7 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
16.11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
elektroni
Mzingo elektroni2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohr model: Th (Thori)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Thori)
electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Th (Thori)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Thori)
oxidation number-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5,058.15 K
Melting Point
2,023.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
Kiwango utatu
appearance
Rangi
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0.000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27.32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.118 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
6.7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000015 m Ω
superconductivity
1.38 K
Uga sumaku
typeparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0.000084
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5.08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0.27
speed of sound
2,490 m/s
classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7.4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.001
quantum number3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

mass number208
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
208.017915348 ± 0.000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
2.4 ± 1.2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi2010
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

mass number209
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
209.017601 ± 0.000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

mass number210
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
210.015093515 ± 0.000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
16 ± 3.6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1995
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

mass number211
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
211.014896923 ± 0.000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
48 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1995
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

mass number212
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
212.01300157 ± 0.000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
31.7 ± 1.3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1980
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

mass number213
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
213.01301147 ± 0.000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
144 ± 21 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1968
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

mass number214
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
214.01148148 ± 0.000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
87 ± 10 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

mass number215
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
215.01172464 ± 0.0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.35 ± 0.14 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1968
parity-

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

mass number216
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
216.011055933 ± 0.00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
26.28 ± 0.16 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

mass number217
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
217.013103443 ± 0.000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
248 ± 4 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1968
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

mass number218
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
218.013276248 ± 0.000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
122 ± 5 ns
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1973
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

mass number219
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
219.015526432 ± 0.000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.023 ± 0.018 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1973
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

mass number220
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
220.015769866 ± 0.000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
10.2 ± 0.3 us
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1973
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

mass number221
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
221.018185757 ± 0.000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.75 ± 0.02 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1970
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

mass number222
neutron number132
relative atomic mass
222.01846822 ± 0.000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
2.24 ± 0.03 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1970
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

mass number223
neutron number133
relative atomic mass
223.020811083 ± 0.000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
600 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1952
parity

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

mass number224
neutron number134
relative atomic mass
224.021466137 ± 0.00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.04 ± 0.02 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1949
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

mass number225
neutron number135
relative atomic mass
225.023950975 ± 0.000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
8.75 ± 0.04 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1949
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

mass number226
neutron number136
relative atomic mass
226.024903699 ± 0.00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
30.7 ± 0.03 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1948
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

mass number227
neutron number137
relative atomic mass
227.027702546 ± 0.000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
18.693 ± 0.004 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1906
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

mass number228
neutron number138
relative atomic mass
228.028739741 ± 0.000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
1.9125 ± 0.0007 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1905
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

mass number229
neutron number139
relative atomic mass
229.031761357 ± 0.000002581 Da
g-factor
0.184 ± 0.016
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
7.916 ± 0.017 ky
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3.11 ± 0.06
Uvumbuzi1947
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

mass number230
neutron number140
relative atomic mass
230.033132267 ± 0.000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0.02 ± 0.02
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
75.4 ± 0.3 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1907
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

mass number231
neutron number141
relative atomic mass
231.036302764 ± 0.000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
25.52 ± 0.01 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1911
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

mass number232
neutron number142
relative atomic mass
232.038053606 ± 0.000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99.98 ± 0.02
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
14 ± 0.1 Gy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1898
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

mass number233
neutron number143
relative atomic mass
233.041580126 ± 0.000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
21.83 ± 0.04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1935
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

mass number234
neutron number144
relative atomic mass
234.043599801 ± 0.000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
24.107 ± 0.024 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1900
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

mass number235
neutron number145
relative atomic mass
235.047255 ± 0.000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
7.2 ± 0.1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1969
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

mass number236
neutron number146
relative atomic mass
236.049657 ± 0.000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
37.3 ± 1.5 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1973
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

mass number237
neutron number147
relative atomic mass
237.053629 ± 0.000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
4.8 ± 0.5 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi1993
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

mass number238
neutron number148
relative atomic mass
238.056388 ± 0.000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
9.4 ± 2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
Uvumbuzi1999
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

mass number239
neutron number149
relative atomic mass
239.060655 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Unururifu☢️ radioactive element
Nusumaisha
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
Uvumbuzi
parity+

hali ya kuozaintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

historia

mgunduzi au mvumbuziJöns Berzelius
location of discoverySweden
Uvumbuzi1828
EtimolojiaNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (Kiingereza)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9.6 mg/kg
natural abundance (Bahari)
0.000001 mg/L
natural abundance (Mwili)
0 %
natural abundance (Kimondo)
0.0000039 %
natural abundance (Jua)
0.00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants