Торий

Торий (Th)

chemical element with the atomic number of 90
Atomic Number90
Atomic Weight232.0377
Адади массавӣ232
Group
Period7
Blockf
proton90 p+
neutron142 n0
electron90 e-
Animated Bohr model of Th (Торий)

Хусусияти Физикӣ

Atomic Radius
180 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
175 pm
Metallic Radius
ionic radius
94 pm
Crystal Radius
108 pm
Van der Waals radius
245 pm
зичӣ
11,7 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Торий0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240250pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

энергия
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
ionization energy of Th (Торий)
enthalpy of vaporization
513,7 kJ/mol
гармои гудозиш
16,11 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
602 kJ/mol
electron
Абри электронӣ2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Bohr model: Th (Торий)
valence electron2
Lewis structure: Th (Торий)
electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 6d2 7s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Th (Торий)
Orbital Diagram of Th (Торий)
oxidation number-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
electronegativity
1.3
Electrophilicity Index
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
5 058,15 K
Melting Point
2 023,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Ранг
Silver
appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
thermal expansion
0,000011 1/K
molar heat capacity
27,32 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
навъConductor
electrical conductivity
6,7 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000015 m Ω
superconductivity
1,38 K
magnetism
навъparamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000072 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,0000000017 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,000084
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
сохт
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
5,08 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
3 MPa
bulk modulus
54 GPa
shear modulus
31 GPa
Young's modulus
79 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,27
speed of sound
2 490 m/s
classification
CategoryActinides, Actinides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number34
Mendeleev Number16
Pettifor Number47
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
217 ± 54 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
allotrope
Neutron cross section
7,4
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,001
ададҳои квантӣ3F2
space group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Thorium

Stable Isotopes0
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition23299.98%23299.98%2300.02%2300.02%

208Th

Адади массавӣ208
neutron number118
relative atomic mass
208,017915348 ± 0,000034208 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,4 ± 1,2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

209Th

Адади массавӣ209
neutron number119
relative atomic mass
209,017601 ± 0,000111 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

210Th

Адади массавӣ210
neutron number120
relative atomic mass
210,015093515 ± 0,000020299 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
16 ± 3,6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

211Th

Адади массавӣ211
neutron number121
relative atomic mass
211,014896923 ± 0,000092399 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
48 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1995
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

212Th

Адади массавӣ212
neutron number122
relative atomic mass
212,01300157 ± 0,000010852 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
31,7 ± 1,3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

213Th

Адади массавӣ213
neutron number123
relative atomic mass
213,01301147 ± 0,000009895 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
144 ± 21 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

214Th

Адади массавӣ214
neutron number124
relative atomic mass
214,01148148 ± 0,000011445 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
87 ± 10 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

215Th

Адади массавӣ215
neutron number125
relative atomic mass
215,01172464 ± 0,0000068 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,35 ± 0,14 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

216Th

Адади массавӣ216
neutron number126
relative atomic mass
216,011055933 ± 0,00001192 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
26,28 ± 0,16 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

217Th

Адади массавӣ217
neutron number127
relative atomic mass
217,013103443 ± 0,000011394 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
248 ± 4 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1968
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

218Th

Адади массавӣ218
neutron number128
relative atomic mass
218,013276248 ± 0,000011289 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
122 ± 5 ns
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

219Th

Адади массавӣ219
neutron number129
relative atomic mass
219,015526432 ± 0,000060611 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,023 ± 0,018 us
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)

220Th

Адади массавӣ220
neutron number130
relative atomic mass
220,015769866 ± 0,000014693 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
10,2 ± 0,3 us
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

221Th

Адади массавӣ221
neutron number131
relative atomic mass
221,018185757 ± 0,000008582 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,75 ± 0,02 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

222Th

Адади массавӣ222
neutron number132
relative atomic mass
222,01846822 ± 0,000010966 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,24 ± 0,03 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1970
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
ϵ (electron capture)

223Th

Адади массавӣ223
neutron number133
relative atomic mass
223,020811083 ± 0,000008527 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
600 ± 20 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1952
parity

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

224Th

Адади массавӣ224
neutron number134
relative atomic mass
224,021466137 ± 0,00001031 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,04 ± 0,02 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)

225Th

Адади массавӣ225
neutron number135
relative atomic mass
225,023950975 ± 0,000005467 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8,75 ± 0,04 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1949
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)

226Th

Адади массавӣ226
neutron number136
relative atomic mass
226,024903699 ± 0,00000481 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30,7 ± 0,03 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
18O3.2%

227Th

Адади массавӣ227
neutron number137
relative atomic mass
227,027702546 ± 0,000002241 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
18,693 ± 0,004 d
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1906
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

228Th

Адади массавӣ228
neutron number138
relative atomic mass
228,028739741 ± 0,000001938 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,9125 ± 0,0007 y
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1905
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
20O1.13%

229Th

Адади массавӣ229
neutron number139
relative atomic mass
229,031761357 ± 0,000002581 Da
g-factor
0,184 ± 0,016
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7,916 ± 0,017 ky
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
3,11 ± 0,06
таърихи кашф1947
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%

230Th

Адади массавӣ230
neutron number140
relative atomic mass
230,033132267 ± 0,000001297 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,02 ± 0,02
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
75,4 ± 0,3 ky
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1907
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)4%
24Ne (heavy cluster emission)5.8%

231Th

Адади массавӣ231
neutron number141
relative atomic mass
231,036302764 ± 0,000001306 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
25,52 ± 0,01 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1911
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

232Th

Адади массавӣ232
neutron number142
relative atomic mass
232,038053606 ± 0,000001525 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
99,98 ± 0,02
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14 ± 0,1 Gy
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1898
parity+

decay modeintensity
α (α emission)100%
SF (spontaneous fission)1.1%
26Ne2.78%
(double β decay)

233Th

Адади массавӣ233
neutron number143
relative atomic mass
233,041580126 ± 0,000001528 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21,83 ± 0,04 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1935
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

234Th

Адади массавӣ234
neutron number144
relative atomic mass
234,043599801 ± 0,000002779 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
24,107 ± 0,024 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1900
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
α (α emission)

235Th

Адади массавӣ235
neutron number145
relative atomic mass
235,047255 ± 0,000014 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7,2 ± 0,1 m
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1969
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

236Th

Адади массавӣ236
neutron number146
relative atomic mass
236,049657 ± 0,000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
37,3 ± 1,5 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1973
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

237Th

Адади массавӣ237
neutron number147
relative atomic mass
237,053629 ± 0,000017 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,8 ± 0,5 m
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф1993
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

238Th

Адади массавӣ238
neutron number148
relative atomic mass
238,056388 ± 0,000304 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9,4 ± 2 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
таърихи кашф1999
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

239Th

Адади массавӣ239
neutron number149
relative atomic mass
239,060655 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
таърихи кашф
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Thorium sample 0.1g

таърих

кошифJöns Berzelius
макони кашфSweden
таърихи кашф1828
РешашиносӣNamed for Thor, Norse god of thunder.
pronunciationTHOR-i-em (Англисӣ)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,6 mg/kg
natural abundance (Уқёнус)
0,000001 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
0 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,0000039 %
natural abundance (Офтоб)
0,00000003 %
Abundance in Universe
0,00000004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants