Vanadium

Vanadium (V)

Vanadium is the 23rd element in the periodic table and has a symbol of V and atomic number of 23. It has an atomic weight of 50.9415 and a mass number of 51. Vanadium has twenty-three protons and twenty-eight neutrons in its nucleus, and twenty-three electrons in four shells. It is located in group five, period four and block d of the periodic table. Soft and ductile, bright white metal. Good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily about 933K. There are two naturally occurring isotopes of vanadium, and 5 radioisotopes, V-49 having the longest half-life at 337 days. Vanadium has nuclear applications, the foil is used in cladding titanium to steel, and vanadium-gallium tape is used to produce a superconductive magnet. Originally discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio of Mexico City in 1801. His discovery went unheeded, however, and in 1820, Nils Gabriel Sefstron of Sweden rediscovered it. Metallic vanadium was isolated by Henry Enfield Roscoe in 1867. The name vanadium comes from Vanadis, a goddess of Scandinavian mythology. Silvery-white metallic transition element. Vanadium is essential to Ascidians. Rats and chickens are also known to require it. Metal powder is a fire hazard, and vanadium compounds should be considered highly toxic. May cause lung cancer if inhaled.
Atomic Number23
Atomic Weight50.9415
Mass Number51
Group5
Period4
Blockd
Protons23 p+
Neutrons28 n0
Electrons23 e-
Animated Bohr Model of V (Vanadium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
134 pm
Metallic Radius
122 pm
Ionic Radius
79 pm
Crystal Radius
93 pm
Van der Waals Radius
207 pm
Density
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Vanadium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
859.4 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
6.746187 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of V (Vanadium)
Heat of Vaporization
460 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
17.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
515.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 11, 2
Bohr Model: V (Vanadium)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: V (Vanadium)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of V (Vanadium)
Orbital Diagram of V (Vanadium)
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Electronegativity
1.63
Electrophilicity Index
1.0623004980594741 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,680.15 K
Melting Point
2,183.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Vanadium is a Silver. V has a CPK of #ff1493, Jmol of #a6a6ab, and MOLCAS GV of #a6a6ab. The Appearance of Element 23 is blue-silver-grey metal.

Color
Silver
Appearanceblue-silver-grey metal
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
30.7 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.0000084 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
24.89 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.489 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
5 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.0000002 m Ω
Superconducting Point
5.4 K
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000628 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000003199 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0003837
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Vanadium is BCC. The lattice constant of V is 3.02 Å. The lattice angles of Element 23 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
3.02 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Vanadium has a Brinell of 628 MPa, Mohs hardness of 7 MPa, and Vickers of 628 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of V is 160 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 23 is 47 GPa. The Young Modulus of Vanadium (V) is 128 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Vanadium is 0.37. The Speed of Sound of V is 4560 m/s.

Hardness
7 MPa
Bulk Modulus
160 GPa
Shear Modulus
47 GPa
Young's Modulus
128 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.37
Speed of Sound
4,560 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Vanadium is VA. The IUPAC Group of V is VB. The Glawe Number of Element 23 is 54. The Mendeleev Number of Vanadium (V) is 47. The Pettifor Number of Vanadium is 54. The Geochemical Class of V is first series transition metal. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 23 is litophile.

CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVA
IUPAC GroupVB
Glawe Number54
Mendeleev Number47
Pettifor Number54
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Vanadium is 836.8 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of V is 87 plus or minus 10 a₀. Element 23 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 832 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 955 a₀. The Allotropes of Vanadium (V) is . The Neutron Cross Section of Vanadium is 5.06. The Neutron Mass Absorption of V is 0.0033. The Quantum Numbers of Element 23 is 4F3/2. The Space Group of Vanadium (V) is 229 (Im_3m).

Gas Basicity
836.8 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
87 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
832 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
5.06
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0033
Quantum Numbers4F3/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Vanadium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes28
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition5199.75%5199.75%500.25%500.25%

39V

Mass Number39
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
39.02423 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

40V

Mass Number40
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
40.013387 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

41V

Mass Number41
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
41.000333 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

42V

Mass Number42
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
41.99182 ± 0.00021 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

43V

Mass Number43
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
42.980766 ± 0.000046 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
79.3 ± 2.4 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1987
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)2.5%

44V

Mass Number44
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
43.974440977 ± 0.000007799 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
111 ± 7 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1971
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

45V

Mass Number45
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
44.965768498 ± 0.000000926 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
547 ± 6 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1975
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

46V

Mass Number46
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
45.960197389 ± 0.000000143 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
422.62 ± 0.05 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

47V

Mass Number47
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
46.954903558 ± 0.000000118 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
32.6 ± 0.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1942
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

48V

Mass Number48
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
47.9522509 ± 0.000001043 Da
G-Factor
0.503 ± 0.00275
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
15.9735 ± 0.0025 d
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

49V

Mass Number49
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
48.948510509 ± 0.000000884 Da
G-Factor
1.2771428571429 ± 0.014285714285714
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
330 ± 15 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

50V

Mass Number50
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
49.947156681 ± 0.000000099 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
0.25 ± 0.01
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
271 ± 13 Py
Spin6
Quadrupole Moment
0.21 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β (β decay)

51V

Mass Number51
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
50.943957664 ± 0.000000104 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
99.75 ± 0.01
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.052 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1924
Parity-

52V

Mass Number52
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
51.944773636 ± 0.00000017 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.743 ± 0.005 m
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

53V

Mass Number53
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
52.94433494 ± 0.000003331 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.543 ± 0.014 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

54V

Mass Number54
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
53.946432009 ± 0.000012001 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
49.8 ± 0.5 s
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

55V

Mass Number55
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
54.947262 ± 0.000029 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.54 ± 0.15 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

56V

Mass Number56
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
55.950420082 ± 0.000188819 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
216 ± 4 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

57V

Mass Number57
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
56.952297 ± 0.000091 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
350 ± 10 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

58V

Mass Number58
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
57.956595985 ± 0.000102862 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
191 ± 10 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1980
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

59V

Mass Number59
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
58.959623343 ± 0.000147505 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
95 ± 6 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3%

60V

Mass Number60
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
59.964479215 ± 0.000195327 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
122 ± 18 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

61V

Mass Number61
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
60.967603529 ± 0.000252196 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
48.2 ± 0.6 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1992
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)14.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

62V

Mass Number62
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
61.972932556 ± 0.000283723 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
33.6 ± 2.3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

63V

Mass Number63
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
62.976661 ± 0.000365 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
19.6 ± 0.9 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)35%
2n (2-neutron emission)

64V

Mass Number64
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
63.98248 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
15 ± 2 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

65V

Mass Number65
Neutron Number42
Relative Atomic Mass
64.986999 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

66V

Mass Number66
Neutron Number43
Relative Atomic Mass
65.993237 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

67V

Mass Number67
Neutron Number44
Relative Atomic Mass
66.998128 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2013
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Vanadium 1

History

Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801. In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium. In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores. Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work. Named after Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis

DiscoverersNils Sefström
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1830
Etymology (Name Origin)From Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis.
Pronunciationveh-NAY-di-em (English)
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia

Uses

Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion. Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft. Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. It is mixed with other metals to make very strong and durable alloys. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer.

Sources

Found in the minerals patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Pure metal produced by heating with C and Cl to produce VCl3 which is heated with Mg in Ar atmosphere.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
120 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
0.0025 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.000003 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.0061 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.00004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5744
2p3.9272
2s6.8186
3d14.0171
3p12.215
3s11.2907
4s18.0188

Also Known As

  • V
  • element 23
  • 23V

Translations

  • Italianvanadio
  • Norwegian Bokmålvanadium
  • Frenchvanadium
  • GermanVanadium
  • Dutchvanadium
  • Catalanvanadi
  • Spanishvanadio
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Afrikaansvanadium
  • Amharicቫናዲየም
  • AragoneseVanadio
  • Arabicفاناديوم
  • AsturianVanadiu
  • AzerbaijaniVanadium
  • BelarusianВанадый
  • Bulgarianванадий
  • Banglaভ্যানাডিয়াম
  • BretonVanadiom
  • Bosnianvanadij
  • CherokeeᏩᏁᏗᎥᎻ
  • CorsicanVanadiu
  • Czechvanad
  • ChuvashВанади
  • WelshVanadiwm
  • Danishvanadium
  • Divehiވެނޭޑިއަމް
  • Greekβανάδιο
  • Esperantovanado
  • Estonianvanaadium
  • Basquebanadio
  • Persianوانادیم
  • Finnishvanadiini
  • Northern FrisianVanadium
  • FriulianVanadi
  • IrishVanaidiam
  • GalicianVanadio
  • ManxVanaadjum
  • Hakka ChineseVanadium
  • HawaiianVanadium
  • Hebrewונדיום
  • Hindiवनेडियम
  • Fiji HindiVanadium
  • Croatianvanadij
  • Haitian CreoleVanadyòm
  • Hungarianvanádium
  • Armenianվանադիում
  • Interlinguavanadium
  • Indonesianvanadium
  • Idovanadio
  • Icelandicvanadín
  • Japaneseバナジウム
  • Lojbanjinmrvanadi
  • JavaneseVanadium
  • Georgianვანადიუმი
  • KazakhВанадий
  • Kannadaವನೆಡಿಯಮ್
  • Korean바나듐
  • KurdishVanadyûm
  • KomiВанадий
  • Latinvanadium
  • LuxembourgishVanadium
  • LigurianVanaddio
  • Lithuanianvanadis
  • Latvianvanādijs
  • Malayalamവനേഡിയം
  • Marathiव्हेनेडियम
  • Western MariВанадий
  • Malayvanadium
  • Low GermanVanadium
  • Norwegian Nynorskvanadium
  • OccitanVanadi
  • Punjabiਵੈਨੇਡੀਅਮ
  • Polishwanad
  • Western Panjabiونیڈیم
  • Portuguesevanádio
  • QuechuaWanadyu
  • Romanianvanadiu
  • Russianванадий
  • Sicilianvanadiu
  • Serbo-CroatianVanadijum
  • Slovakvanád
  • Slovenianvanadij
  • Serbianванадијум
  • Saterland FrisianVanadium
  • Swedishvanadin
  • SwahiliVanadi
  • Tamilவனேடியம்
  • Teluguవెనేడియం
  • Thaiวาเนเดียม
  • TagalogBanadyo
  • Turkishvanadyum
  • Uyghurۋانادىي
  • Ukrainianванадій
  • UzbekVanadiy
  • VepsVanadii
  • Vietnamesevanadi
  • WarayVanadyo
  • KalmykВанад
  • Yiddishוואנאדיום
  • YorubaBanadiomu
  • Chinese
  • CebuanoVanadyo
  • MacedonianВанадиум
  • Central Kurdishڤانادیۆم
  • Odiaଭାନାଡ଼ିଅମ
  • BashkirВанадий
  • Gujaratiવેનેડિયમ
  • TatarВанадий
  • PiedmonteseVanadi
  • Scotsvanadium
  • SomaliFanadhiyaam
  • Newariभ्यानडियम
  • Cantonese
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)Ванад
  • AlbanianVanadiumi
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (China)
  • AromanianVanadiu
  • KyrgyzВанадий
  • Nepaliभेनेडियम
  • LimburgishVanadium
  • Sanskritभ्यानडियम
  • Maltesevanadju
  • LombardVanadio
  • Scottish GaelicBhanadium
  • Portuguese (Brazil)vanádio
  • TajikВанадий
  • nahCīmapantepoztli
  • Mongolianванади
  • cdoVanadium
  • Min Nan ChineseVanadium
  • Bhojpuriवैनेडियम
  • Tibetanཝེ་ནི་ཌིམ།
  • SundaneseVanadium
  • Lingua Franca Novavanadio
  • Wu Chinese
  • Burmeseဗနေဒီယမ်
  • Urduوینیڈیئم
  • oloVanadium
  • kbpFanadɩyɔm
  • Paliभ्यानडियम
  • hywՎանադին
  • BavarianVanadium
  • SardinianVanàdiu
  • Moroccan Arabicڤاناديوم
  • Egyptian Arabicفاناديوم
  • Pashtoوانېديوم
  • CornishVanadiom
  • BalineseVanadium
  • BikolBanadyo
  • KotavaVandel
  • Malay (Arabic)ۏاناديوم
  • blkဗနဒီယမ်