CAS Number7440-45-1
PubChem CID23974
Atomic Radius۱۸۲
Atomic Volume۲۰٫۶۷
Atomic Weight۱۴۰٫۱۱۶
Boiling Point۳٬۴۴۳
Bulk Modulus
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Covalent Radius۲۰۴
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Heat of Fusion۵٫۵
Heat of Vaporization۳۵۰
Ionization Potential۵٫۵۳۹
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number58
Melting Point۷۹۵
Atomic Number140
Oxidation States2, 3, 4
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity۰٫۱۹۲
Thermal Conductivity۰٫۱۱۴
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.006%
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%
Ce Cer 58 140.116 6 f 58 798.0 3257.0 [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2 2 8 18 19 9 2 6.66 0.006% Silver Cubic: Face centered 1.1 {"1":"534.4","2":"1050","3":"1949","4":"3547","5":"6325","6":"7490"} 534 50 +3,4 1.81 21.0 9.2 313.8 0.19 11.4 12.5K 0 Solid, Paramagnetic, Conductor, Lanthanide, Stable, Natural SER-i-em Malleable, ductile, iron-gray metal. Its oxides are used in the optics and glass-making industries. Its salts are used in the photography and textile industry. Used in high-intensity carbon lamps and as alloying agents in special metals. Most abundant rare earth metal. Found in many minerals like monazite sand [Ce(PO4)]. frD3126ry8o Cerium
Rhodium was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in London.

He used crude platinum ore presumably obtained from South America.

The introduction of the three way catalytic converter by Volvo in 1976 increased the demand for rhodium. From the Greek word rhodon, rose 58 1803 Wilhelm von Hisinger, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Martin Klaproth Sweden, Germany Named after the asteroid Ceres which discovered in 1801, 2 years before the element

Isotopes of Rhodium

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

136Ce 138Ce 140Ce 142Ce

Unstable Isotopes

119Ce 120Ce 121Ce 122Ce 123Ce 124Ce 125Ce 126Ce 127Ce 128Ce 129Ce 130Ce 131Ce 132Ce 133Ce 134Ce 135Ce 137Ce 139Ce 141Ce 143Ce 144Ce 145Ce 146Ce 147Ce 148Ce 149Ce 150Ce 151Ce 152Ce 153Ce 154Ce 155Ce 156Ce 157Ce

Rhodium is considered to be non-toxic
Rhodium metal does not normally form an oxide, even when heated
The element's major use is as one of the catalysts in the three-way catalytic converters in automobiles.

Rhodium is used as an alloying agent for hardening and improving the corrosion resistance of platinum and palladium.

It is also used as a filter in mammography systems because of the characteristic X-rays it produces.

Rhodium is also used for jewelry and for decorations.