Xenon

Xenon (Xe)

Colourless, odourless gas belonging to group 18 on the periodic table (the noble gases.) Nine natural isotopes and seven radioactive isotopes are known. Xenon was part of the first noble-gas compound synthesized. Several others involving Xenon have been found since then. Xenon was discovered by Ramsey and Travers in 1898.
Atomic Number54
Atomic Weight131.293
Mass Number132
Group18
Period5
Blockp
Protons54 p+
Neutrons78 n0
Electrons54 e-
Xenon discharge tube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Xe (Xenon) Enhanced Bohr Model of Xe (Xenon) Bohr Model: Xe (Xenon) Orbital Diagram of Xe (Xenon)

Properties

Atomic Radius
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
131 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
40 pm
Crystal Radius
54 pm
Van der Waals Radius
216 pm
Density
0.005366 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
499.6 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
12.1298431 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
12.65 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Valence Electrons6
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Oxidation States0, 2, 4, 6, 8
Electronegativity
2.6
Electrophilicity
1.4953590614035728 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseGas
Gas PhaseMonoatomic
Boiling Point
165.051 K
Melting Point
161.4 K
Critical Pressure
5.842 MPa
Critical Temperature
289.733 K
Triple Point
161.405 K
81.77 kPa
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a blue glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
Refractive Index
1.000702
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.0057 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
20.786 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.158 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)5/3
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000043 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000565 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000000254
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
6.2 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
1,090 m/s
Classification
CategoryNoble gases, Noble gases
CAS GroupVIII
IUPAC GroupVIIIA
Glawe Number5
Mendeleev Number116
Pettifor Number5
Geochemical Classvolatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Other
Gas Basicity
478.1 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
27.32 ± 0.2 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
25
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0083
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Xenon

Stable Isotopes9
Unstable Isotopes34
Radioactive Isotopes35

108Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
107.954232285 ± 0.000407406 Da
Mass Number108
G-Factor
0
Half Life
72 ± 35 us
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

108Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%

109Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
108.950434955 ± 0.000322178 Da
Mass Number109
G-Factor
Half Life
13 ± 2 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2006
Parity+

109Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

110Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
109.944258759 ± 0.000108415 Da
Mass Number110
G-Factor
0
Half Life
93 ± 3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

110Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)64%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)36%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

111Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
110.94147 ± 0.000124 Da
Mass Number111
G-Factor
Half Life
740 ± 200 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

111Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)89.6%
α (α emission)10.4%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

112Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
111.935559068 ± 0.000008891 Da
Mass Number112
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.7 ± 0.8 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

112Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)98.8%
α (α emission)1.2%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

113Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
112.933221663 ± 0.000007342 Da
Mass Number113
G-Factor
Half Life
2.74 ± 0.08 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1973
Parity+

113Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.007%

114Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
113.927980329 ± 0.000012 Da
Mass Number114
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

114Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

115Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
114.926293943 ± 0.000013 Da
Mass Number115
G-Factor
Half Life
18 ± 3 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

115Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.34%

116Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
115.921580955 ± 0.000013974 Da
Mass Number116
G-Factor
0
Half Life
59 ± 2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

116Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

117Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
116.920358758 ± 0.000011141 Da
Mass Number117
G-Factor
-0.23752 ± 0.0006
Half Life
61 ± 2 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.1 ± 0.4
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

117Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.0029%

118Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
117.916178678 ± 0.000011141 Da
Mass Number118
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.8 ± 0.9 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

118Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

119Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
118.915410641 ± 0.000011141 Da
Mass Number119
G-Factor
-0.26168 ± 0.0006
Half Life
5.8 ± 0.3 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.29 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

119Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)79%
ϵ (electron capture)21%

120Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
119.911784267 ± 0.000012686 Da
Mass Number120
G-Factor
0
Half Life
46 ± 0.6 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

120Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

121Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
120.911453012 ± 0.000010995 Da
Mass Number121
G-Factor
-0.2804 ± 0.0012
Half Life
40.1 ± 2 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.31 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

121Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

122Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
121.908367655 ± 0.000011928 Da
Mass Number122
G-Factor
0
Half Life
20.1 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

122Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

123Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
122.908482235 ± 0.000010234 Da
Mass Number123
G-Factor
-0.3 ± 0.006
Half Life
2.08 ± 0.02 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity+

123Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

124Xe

Abundance
0.095 ± 0.005
Relative Atomic Mass
123.905885174 ± 0.000001457 Da
Mass Number124
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

124Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

125Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
124.90638764 ± 0.000001518 Da
Mass Number125
G-Factor
-0.538 ± 0.006
Half Life
16.87 ± 0.08 h
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

125Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

126Xe

Abundance
0.089 ± 0.003
Relative Atomic Mass
125.904297422 ± 0.000000006 Da
Mass Number126
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

126Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

127Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
126.905183636 ± 0.000004388 Da
Mass Number127
G-Factor
-1.0066 ± 0.0022
Half Life
36.342 ± 0.003 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

127Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

128Xe

Abundance
1.91 ± 0.013
Relative Atomic Mass
127.90353075341 ± 0.00000000558 Da
Mass Number128
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

129Xe

Abundance
26.401 ± 0.138
Relative Atomic Mass
128.90478085742 ± 0.00000000542 Da
Mass Number129
G-Factor
-1.555922 ± 0.000032
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

130Xe

Abundance
4.071 ± 0.022
Relative Atomic Mass
129.903509346 ± 0.00000001 Da
Mass Number130
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

131Xe

Abundance
21.232 ± 0.051
Relative Atomic Mass
130.90508412808 ± 0.00000000549 Da
Mass Number131
G-Factor
0.46123 ± 0.0000046666666666667
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.114 ± 0.001
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

132Xe

Abundance
26.909 ± 0.055
Relative Atomic Mass
131.90415508346 ± 0.00000000544 Da
Mass Number132
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

133Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
132.905910748 ± 0.000002576 Da
Mass Number133
G-Factor
Half Life
5.2474 ± 0.0005 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.14 ± 0.005
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

133Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

134Xe

Abundance
10.436 ± 0.035
Relative Atomic Mass
133.90539303 ± 0.000000006 Da
Mass Number134
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

134Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

135Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
134.907231441 ± 0.000003938 Da
Mass Number135
G-Factor
0.60213333333333 ± 0.00046666666666667
Half Life
9.14 ± 0.02 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.21 ± 0.007
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

135Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

136Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
8.857 ± 0.072
Relative Atomic Mass
135.907214474 ± 0.000000007 Da
Mass Number136
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.18 ± 0.05 Zy
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

136Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)100%

137Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
136.911557771 ± 0.000000111 Da
Mass Number137
G-Factor
-0.27725714285714 ± 0.00028571428571429
Half Life
3.818 ± 0.013 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.47 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

137Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

138Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.914146268 ± 0.00000301 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
0
Half Life
14.14 ± 0.07 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1943
Parity+

138Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

139Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.9187922 ± 0.0000023 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
-0.20266666666667 ± 0.0010666666666667
Half Life
39.68 ± 0.14 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.39 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

139Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

140Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.921645814 ± 0.0000025 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
0
Half Life
13.6 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

140Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

141Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
140.926787181 ± 0.0000031 Da
Mass Number141
G-Factor
0.004 ± 0.0012
Half Life
1.73 ± 0.01 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.57 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

141Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.044%

142Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
141.929973095 ± 0.0000029 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.23 ± 0.02 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity+

142Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.37%

143Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
142.93536955 ± 0.000005 Da
Mass Number143
G-Factor
-0.184 ± 0.0008
Half Life
511 ± 6 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.91 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

143Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1%

144Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
143.938945076 ± 0.0000057 Da
Mass Number144
G-Factor
0
Half Life
388 ± 7 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2003
Parity+

144Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)3%

145Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
144.944719631 ± 0.000012 Da
Mass Number145
G-Factor
Half Life
188 ± 4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2003
Parity-

145Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

146Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
145.948518245 ± 0.000026 Da
Mass Number146
G-Factor
0
Half Life
146 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

146Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.9%

147Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
146.954482 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number147
G-Factor
Half Life
88 ± 14 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1994
Parity-

147Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)8%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

148Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
147.958508 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number148
G-Factor
0
Half Life
85 ± 15 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

148Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

149Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
148.964573 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number149
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

149Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

150Xe

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
149.968878 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

150Xe Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in 1898. They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Spectroscopic analysis showed the previously unseen beautiful blue lines that indicated the presence of a new element. From the Greek word xenon, stranger

DiscoverersSir William Ramsay; M. W. Travers
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1898
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: xenos (strange).
PronunciationZEE-non (English)
Xenon is not toxic, but its compounds are highly toxic
If inhaled, xenon can cause a person's voice to deepen

Uses

Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and in photographic flashes. Xenon is used in medicine as a general anesthetic and in medical imaging. In nuclear energy applications, xenon is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert nature is desirable. Used for filling flash lamps and other powerful lamps. Electrical excitation of xenon produces a burst of brilliant whtie light. Also used in bubble chambers and modern nuclear power reactors.

Sources

Obtain from the small quantities in liquid air.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.00003 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00005 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe
0.000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.0785
2p4.1654
2s14.197
3d14.0532
3p18.3324
3s18.4236
4d32.1068
4p29.0428
4s27.8272
5p41.5755
5s39.782