CAS Number7440-55-3
PubChem CID5360835
Atomic Radius۱۳۵
Atomic Volume۱۱٫۸
Atomic Weight۶۹٫۷۲۳
Boiling Point۲٬۲۰۴
Bulk Modulus
CategoryPost-transition metals
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic
Covalent Radius۱۲۲
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 3
Heat of Fusion۵٫۵۹
Heat of Vaporization۲۵۶
Ionization Potential۵٫۹۹۹
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number31
Melting Point۲۹٫۷۶
Atomic Number70
Oxidation States1, 2, 3
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity۰٫۳۷۱
Thermal Conductivity۰٫۴۰۶
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.0019%
Abundance in Universe1×10-6%
Ga Gôl 31 69.723 13 4 p 31 29.8 2403.0 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 2 8 18 3 5.9 0.0019% Silver Orthorhombic 1.8 1.756 {"1":"578.8","2":"1979.3","3":"2963","4":"6180"} 579 28.9 126 3 1.41 11.8 5.59 256.06 0.371 40.6 0 Solid, Diamagnetic, Conductor, Metal, Stable, Natural, PoorMetal GAL-i-em Soft, blue-white metal. Used in semiconductor production. It us used in making LEDs (light-emitting diodes) and GaAs laser diodes. Found throughout the crust in minerals like bauxite, germanite and coal. N6ccRvKKwZQ Gallium
Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself. From the Latin word calx, lime 31 1875 Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran France From the Latin word "Gallia" meaning "France" and perhaps also from the Latin word "gallus"

Isotopes of Calcium

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

69Ga 71Ga

Unstable Isotopes

56Ga 57Ga 58Ga 59Ga 60Ga 61Ga 62Ga 63Ga 64Ga 65Ga 66Ga 67Ga 68Ga 70Ga 72Ga 73Ga 74Ga 75Ga 76Ga 77Ga 78Ga 79Ga 80Ga 81Ga 82Ga 83Ga 84Ga 85Ga 86Ga

Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate
Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.

It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys.

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium.

Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone.