CAS Number7440-54-2
PubChem CID23982
Atomic Radius180
Atomic Volume19.9
परमाणु भार157.25
Bulk Modulus
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
संयोजी त्रिज्या196
Electrical Resistivity
इलेक्ट्रॉन कॉन्फिगरेशन[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
इलेक्ट्रॉन प्रति शेल2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
विलय ऊष्मा10
वाष्पीकरण ऊष्मा305
आयनीकरण ऊर्जाएं6.15
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number64
परमाणु संख्या157
ऑक्सीकरण स्थितियां1, 2, 3
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
विशिष्ट ऊष्मा क्षमता0.236
तापीय चालकता0.106
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
प्राकृतिक प्रचुरता
Abundance in Earth's crust0.00052%
Abundance in Universe2×10-7%
Gd ग्याडोलिनियम 64 157.25 6 f 64 1313.0 3273.0 [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2 2 8 18 25 9 2 7.9 0.00052% Silver Hexagonal 1.2 {"1":"593.4","2":"1170","3":"1990","4":"4250"} 593 50 3 1.8 19.9 10.46 311.71 0.236 10.6 0 Solid, Ferromagnetic, Conductor, Lanthanide, Stable, Natural GAD-eh-LIN-i-em Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. Used in steel alloying agents and the manufacture of electronic components. Found with other rare earths in gadolinite and monazite sand. uUo7pY38fGY Gadolinium
Tin was first smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze.

The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC.

Cassiterite, the tin oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin in ancient times.

British scientist Robert Boyle published a description of his experiments on the oxidation of tin in 1673. The Latin word for tin is stannum 64 1880 Jean de Marignac Switzerland Named after J. "Gadolin", a Finnish chemist and minerologist

Isotopes of Tin

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

152Gd 154Gd 155Gd 156Gd 157Gd 158Gd 160Gd

Unstable Isotopes

134Gd 135Gd 136Gd 137Gd 138Gd 139Gd 140Gd 141Gd 142Gd 143Gd 144Gd 145Gd 146Gd 147Gd 148Gd 149Gd 150Gd 151Gd 153Gd 159Gd 161Gd 162Gd 163Gd 164Gd 165Gd 166Gd 167Gd 168Gd 169Gd

Tin is considered to be non-toxic but most tin salts are toxic
When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the tin cry can be heard
Tin is used as a coating on the surface of other metals to prevent corrosion.

It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead.

Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings.

Tin chloride is used as a mordant in dyeing textiles and for increasing the weight of silk.