Properties

CAS Number7440-54-2
PubChem CID23982
Atomic Radius۱۸۰
Atomic Volume۱۹٫۹
Atomic Weight۱۵۷٫۲۵
Blockf
Boiling Point۳٬۲۷۳
Bulk Modulus
CategoryLanthanides
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
ColorSilver
Covalent Radius۱۹۶
Density۷٫۸۹۵
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Electronegativity۱٫۲
Electrons64
Groupna
Heat of Fusion۱۰
Heat of Vaporization۳۰۵
Ionization Potential۶٫۱۵
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass۱۵۷٫۲۵
Mass Number64
Melting Point۱٬۳۱۲
NameGadolin
Neutrons93
Atomic Number157
Oxidation States1, 2, 3
Period6
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Protons64
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity۰٫۲۳۶
SymbolGd
Thermal Conductivity۰٫۱۰۶
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust0.00052%
Abundance in Universe2×10-7%
Gd Gadolin 64 157.25 6 f 64 1313.0 3273.0 [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2 2 8 18 25 9 2 7.9 0.00052% Silver Hexagonal 1.2 {"1":"593.4","2":"1170","3":"1990","4":"4250"} 593 50 3 1.8 19.9 10.46 311.71 0.236 10.6 0 Solid, Ferromagnetic, Conductor, Lanthanide, Stable, Natural GAD-eh-LIN-i-em Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. Used in steel alloying agents and the manufacture of electronic components. Found with other rare earths in gadolinite and monazite sand. uUo7pY38fGY Gadolinium
Tin was first smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze.

The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC.

Cassiterite, the tin oxide form of tin, was most likely the original source of tin in ancient times.

British scientist Robert Boyle published a description of his experiments on the oxidation of tin in 1673. The Latin word for tin is stannum 64 1880 Jean de Marignac Switzerland Named after J. "Gadolin", a Finnish chemist and minerologist

Isotopes of Tin

Standard Atomic Weight

157.25(3)

Stable Isotopes

152Gd 154Gd 155Gd 156Gd 157Gd 158Gd 160Gd

Unstable Isotopes

134Gd 135Gd 136Gd 137Gd 138Gd 139Gd 140Gd 141Gd 142Gd 143Gd 144Gd 145Gd 146Gd 147Gd 148Gd 149Gd 150Gd 151Gd 153Gd 159Gd 161Gd 162Gd 163Gd 164Gd 165Gd 166Gd 167Gd 168Gd 169Gd

Tin is considered to be non-toxic but most tin salts are toxic
When a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the tin cry can be heard
Tin is used as a coating on the surface of other metals to prevent corrosion.

It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead.

Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings.

Tin chloride is used as a mordant in dyeing textiles and for increasing the weight of silk.