CAS Number7439-96-5
PubChem CID23930
Atomic Radius127
Atomic Volume7.4
Atomic Weight54.938
Boiling Point2,061
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic
Covalent Radius139
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 13, 2
Heat of Fusion13.2
Heat of Vaporization220
Ionization Potential7.434
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number25
Melting Point1,246
Atomic Number55
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.479
Thermal Conductivity0.078
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.11%
Abundance in Universe0.0008%
Mn Manganese 25 54.938045 7 4 d 25 1244.0 1962.0 [Ar] 4s2 3d5 2 8 15 7.43 0.11% Silver Cubic: Body centered 1.6 1.75 {"1":"717.3","2":"1509.0","3":"3248","4":"4940","5":"6990","6":"9220","7":"11500","8":"18770","9":"21400","10":"23960","11":"27590","12":"30330","13":"33150","14":"38880","15":"41987","16":"109480","17":"118100","18":"127100","19":"138600","20":"148500","21":"158600","22":"172500","23":"181380","24":"785450","25":"827067"} 717 0 139 +2,3,4,6,7 1.35 7.39 14.64 219.74 0.48 7.82 100.K 0 Solid, Paramagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural MAN-ge-nees Hard, brittle, gray-white metal with a pinkish tinge. Rusts like iron in moist air. Used in steel, batteries and ceramics. The steel in railroad tracks can contain as much as 1.2% manganese. It is crucial to the effectiveness of vitamin B1. Most abundant ores are pyrolusite (MnO2), psilomelane [(Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10] and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Pure metal produced by mixing MnO2 with powered Al and ignited in a furnace. 5xqsPZ7WsHw Manganese
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777. From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise 25 1774 Johann Gahn Sweden From the Latin word "magnes" meaning "magnet", or "magnesia nigri" meaning "black magnesia"

Isotopes of Phosphorus

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes


Unstable Isotopes

44Mn 45Mn 46Mn 47Mn 48Mn 49Mn 50Mn 51Mn 52Mn 53Mn 54Mn 56Mn 57Mn 58Mn 59Mn 60Mn 61Mn 62Mn 63Mn 64Mn 65Mn 66Mn 67Mn 68Mn 69Mn

White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.