CAS Number7440-18-8
PubChem CID23950
Atomic Radius134
Atomic Volume8.3
Atomic Weight101.07
Boiling Point4,150
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal
Covalent Radius146
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Heat of Fusion25.7
Heat of Vaporization580
Ionization Potential7.36
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number44
Melting Point2,334
Atomic Number101
Oxidation States-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.238
Thermal Conductivity1.17
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust9.9×10-8%
Abundance in Universe4×10-7%
Ru Ruthenium 44 101.07 8 5 d 44 2310.0 3900.0 [Kr] 4d7 5s1 2 8 18 15 1 12.4 9.9E-8% Silver Hexagonal 2.2 1.54 {"1":"710.2","2":"1620","3":"2747"} 710 101.3 126 +4,3,6,8 1.34 8.3 25.52 567.77 0.238 117.0 0 Solid, Paramagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural roo-THE-ni-em Rare, extremely brittle, silver-gray metal. Used to harden platinum and palladium. Aircraft magnetos use platinum alloy with 10% ruthenium. Found in pentlandite and pyroxinite. wl5ZYb0hDTc Ruthenium
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. From the Latin word Germania, Germany 44 1844 Karl Karlovich Klaus Russia From the Latin word "Ruthenia" meaning "Russia"

Isotopes of Germanium

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

96Ru 98Ru 99Ru 100Ru 101Ru 102Ru 104Ru

Unstable Isotopes

87Ru 88Ru 89Ru 90Ru 91Ru 92Ru 93Ru 94Ru 95Ru 97Ru 103Ru 105Ru 106Ru 107Ru 108Ru 109Ru 110Ru 111Ru 112Ru 113Ru 114Ru 115Ru 116Ru 117Ru 118Ru 119Ru 120Ru

Germanium is not known to be toxic
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.