CAS Number7440-33-7
PubChem CID23964
Atomic Radius139
Atomic Volume9.53
Atomic Weight183.84
Boiling Point5,555
Bulk Modulus
CategoryTransition metals
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic
Covalent Radius162
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Heat of Fusion35
Heat of Vaporization800
Ionization Potential7.864
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
Mass Number74
Melting Point3,422
Atomic Number184
Oxidation States-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Specific Heat Capacity0.132
Thermal Conductivity1.74
Van der Waals radius
Young's Modulus
Abundance in Earth's crust0.00011%
Abundance in Universe5×10-8%
W Tungsten 74 183.84 6 6 d 74 3410.0 5660.0 [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2 2 8 18 32 12 2 19.3 0.00011% Gray Cubic: Body centered 2.4 1.47 {"1":"770","2":"1700"} 770 78.6 +6,4 1.41 9.53 35.4 422.58 0.13 174.0 0 Solid, Paramagnetic, Conductor, TransitionMetal, Metal, Stable, Natural TUNG-sten Hard, steel-gray to white metal. Highest melting point of all metals. Made into filaments for vacuum tubes and electric lights. Also as contact points in cars. Combined with calcium or magnesium it makes phosphors. Tungsten carbide is extremely hard and is used for making cutting tools and abrasives. Occurs in the minerals scheelite (CaWO4) and wolframite [(Fe,Mn)WO4]. _PccntqMOoI Tungsten
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon. From the Latin word carbo, charcoal 74 1783 Fausto and Juan Jose de Elhuyar Spain From the Swedish words "tung sten" meaning "heavy stone" (the origin of the symbol W is "wolfram ", named after the tungsten mineral wolframite)

Isotopes of Carbon

Standard Atomic Weight


Stable Isotopes

180W 182W 183W 184W 186W

Unstable Isotopes

158W 159W 160W 161W 162W 163W 164W 165W 166W 167W 168W 169W 170W 171W 172W 173W 174W 175W 176W 177W 178W 179W 181W 185W 187W 188W 189W 190W 191W 192W

Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.