Boron

Boron (B)

chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5
Atomic Number5
Atomic Weight10.81
Nombor jisim11
Group13
Period2
Blockp
proton5 p+
neutron6 n0
Elektron5 e-
Animated Model Bohr of B (Boron)

Sifat Fizikal

Jejari Atom
85 pm
molar volume
Jejari kovalen
85 pm
Metallic Radius
80 pm
ionic radius
1 pm
Crystal Radius
15 pm
Jejari van der Waals
192 pm
ketumpatan
2.34 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Boron0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200pmJejari AtomJejari KovalenMetallic RadiusJejari van der Waals

Sifat Kimia

tenaga
proton affinity
Pertalian elektron
0.279723 eV/particle
ionization energy
8.298019 eV/particle
ionization energy of B (Boron)
Entalpi pengewapan
504.5 kJ/mol
entalpi pelakuran
23.6 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
565 kJ/mol
Elektron
Petala elektron2, 3
Model Bohr: B (Boron)
Elektron valens3
Teori ion Lewis: B (Boron)
tatarajah elektron[He] 2s2 2p1
1s2 2s2 2p1
Enhanced Model Bohr of B (Boron)
Orbital Diagram of B (Boron)
Keadaan pengoksidaan-5, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Keelektronegatifan
2.04
Electrophilicity Index
1.1470276511768214 eV/particle
keadaan jirim asas
fasa jirimSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
4,273.15 K
Melting Point
2,350.15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
rupa
warna
Black
rupablack-brown
indeks biasan
sifat bahan
Thermal Conductivity
27.4 W/(m K)
Pengembangan terma
0.000006 1/K
molar heat capacity
11.087 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.026 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeInsulator
Kekonduksian elektrik
0.0000000001 MS/m
Kerintangan dan kekonduksian elektrik
10,000 m Ω
Kesuperkonduksian
kemagnetan
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000087 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000941 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000214
magnetic ordering
Suhu Curie
Néel temperature
struktur
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal (TET)
lattice constant
8.73 Å
Lattice Angles1.01334, 1.01334, 1.01334
mechanical property
hardness
9.3 MPa
Modulus pukal
320 GPa
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Nisbah Poisson
Kelajuan bunyi
16,200 m/s
pengelasan
CategoryMetalloids, Metalloids
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number86
Mendeleev Number81
Pettifor Number86
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
20.5 ± 0.1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
99.5 a₀
allotropeAlpha Rhombohedral Boron, Beta Rhombohedral Boron, Alpha Tetragonal Boron
Neutron cross section
760
Neutron Mass Absorption
2.4
Nombor kuantum2P1/2
space group166 (R_3m)

Isotopes of Boron

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes14
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition1180.35%1180.35%1019.65%1019.65%

6B

Nombor jisim6
nombor neutron1
jisim atom relatif
6.0508 ± 0.00215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
2p (2-proton emission)

7B

Nombor jisim7
nombor neutron2
jisim atom relatif
7.029712 ± 0.000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
570 ± 14 ys
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1967
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%

8B

Nombor jisim8
nombor neutron3
jisim atom relatif
8.024607315 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
0.51775 ± 0.00015
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
771.9 ± 0.9 ms
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0643 ± 0.0014
tarikh penemuan1950
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)100%

9B

Nombor jisim9
nombor neutron4
jisim atom relatif
9.013329645 ± 0.000000969 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
800 ± 300 zs
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1940
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
p (proton emission)100%

10B

Nombor jisim10
nombor neutron5
jisim atom relatif
10.012936862 ± 0.000000016 Da
g-factor
0.60015453333333 ± 0.00000026666666666667
natural abundance
19.65 ± 0.44
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0846 ± 0.0002
tarikh penemuan1920
parity+

11B

Nombor jisim11
nombor neutron6
jisim atom relatif
11.009305166 ± 0.000000013 Da
g-factor
1.792252 ± 0.00000066666666666667
natural abundance
80.35 ± 0.44
Reputan radioaktifIsotop stabil
setengah hayatNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.04059 ± 0.0001
tarikh penemuan1920
parity-

12B

Nombor jisim12
nombor neutron7
jisim atom relatif
12.014352638 ± 0.000001418 Da
g-factor
1.003 ± 0.001
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
20.2 ± 0.02 ms
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0132 ± 0.0003
tarikh penemuan1935
parity+

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
βα (β-delayed α emission)0.6%

13B

Nombor jisim13
nombor neutron8
jisim atom relatif
13.017779981 ± 0.000001073 Da
g-factor
2.1185333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
17.16 ± 0.18 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0365 ± 0.0008
tarikh penemuan1956
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.266%

14B

Nombor jisim14
nombor neutron9
jisim atom relatif
14.02540401 ± 0.000022773 Da
g-factor
0.5925 ± 0.0025
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
12.36 ± 0.29 ms
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0297 ± 0.0008
tarikh penemuan1966
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.04%
2n (2-neutron emission)

15B

Nombor jisim15
nombor neutron10
jisim atom relatif
15.031087023 ± 0.000022575 Da
g-factor
1.7726666666667 ± 0.01
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
10.18 ± 0.35 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0379 ± 0.0011
tarikh penemuan1966
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)98.7%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.5%

16B

Nombor jisim16
nombor neutron11
jisim atom relatif
16.039841045 ± 0.000026373 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
tarikh penemuan2000
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
n (neutron emission)

17B

Nombor jisim17
nombor neutron12
jisim atom relatif
17.046931399 ± 0.000219114 Da
g-factor
1.7 ± 0.013333333333333
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
5.08 ± 0.05 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.0385 ± 0.0015
tarikh penemuan1973
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)63%
2n (2-neutron emission)12%
3n (3-neutron emission)3.5%
4n0.4%

18B

Nombor jisim18
nombor neutron13
jisim atom relatif
18.055601683 ± 0.00021918 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2010
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
n (neutron emission)100%

19B

Nombor jisim19
nombor neutron14
jisim atom relatif
19.064166 ± 0.000564 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
2.92 ± 0.13 ms
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan1984
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)71%
2n (2-neutron emission)17%
3n (3-neutron emission)9.1%

20B

Nombor jisim20
nombor neutron15
jisim atom relatif
20.074505644 ± 0.000586538 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2018
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
n (neutron emission)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

21B

Nombor jisim21
nombor neutron16
jisim atom relatif
21.084147485 ± 0.00059975 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Reputan radioaktif☢️ radioactive element
setengah hayat
Spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
tarikh penemuan2018
parity-

decay modeKeamatan (fizik)
2n (2-neutron emission)100%
Boron
Electron shell 005 Boron

sejarah

penemu atau perekaSir H. Davy, J.L. Gay-Lussac, L.J. Thénard
tempat penemuanEngland/France
tarikh penemuan1808
EtimologiFrom Arabic and Persian words for borax.
sebutanBO-ron (Inggeris)

sumber

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (lautan)
4.44 mg/L
natural abundance (Tubuh manusia)
0.00007 %
natural abundance (Meteoroid)
0.00016 %
natural abundance (Matahari)
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3205
2p2.5786
2s2.4238