Bromine

Bromine (Br)

Halogen element. Red volatile liquid at room temperature. Its reactivity is somewhere between chlorine and iodine. Harmful to human tissue in a liquid state, the vapour irritates eyes and throat. Discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard.
Atomic Number35
Atomic Weight79.904
Mass Number79
Group17
Period4
Blockp
Protons35 p+
Neutrons44 n0
Electrons35 e-
Bromine vial in acrylic cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Br (Bromine) Enhanced Bohr Model of Br (Bromine) Bohr Model: Br (Bromine) Orbital Diagram of Br (Bromine)

Properties

Atomic Radius
115 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
114 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
196 pm
Crystal Radius
182 pm
Van der Waals Radius
185 pm
Density
3.1028 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
554.4 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
3.3635882 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
11.81381 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
29.56 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
10.57 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
111.85 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 7
Valence Electrons5
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Oxidation States-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7
Electronegativity
2.96
Electrophilicity
3.4075054710599915 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseLiquid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
331.95 K
Melting Point
265.95 K
Critical Pressure
10.34 MPa
Critical Temperature
588.15 K
Triple Point
265.9 K
5.879 kPa
Visual
Color
Red
Appearance
Refractive Index
1.001132
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.005 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
75.69 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.474 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeInsulator
Electrical Conductivity
0.0000000000000001 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
10,000,000,000 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000049 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000783 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000153
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
Lattice Constant
6.67 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
1.9 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification
CategoryHalogens, Halogens
CAS GroupVIIB
IUPAC GroupVIIA
Glawe Number100
Mendeleev Number108
Pettifor Number98
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
531.2 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
21 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
162 a₀
AllotropesDibromine
Neutron Cross Section
6.8
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.002
Quantum Numbers2P3/2
Space Group64 (Cmca)

Isotopes of Bromine

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes32
Radioactive Isotopes28

65Br

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
64.982297 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number65
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

65Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

66Br

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
65.974697 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number66
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

66Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

67Br

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
66.965078 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number67
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity-

67Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

68Br

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
67.958356 ± 0.000278 Da
Mass Number68
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

68Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

69Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
68.95033841 ± 0.000045091 Da
Mass Number69
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1988
Parity-

69Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

70Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
69.944792321 ± 0.000016 Da
Mass Number70
G-Factor
0
Half Life
78.8 ± 0.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

70Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

71Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
70.939342153 ± 0.000005799 Da
Mass Number71
G-Factor
Half Life
21.4 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity

71Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

72Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
71.936594606 ± 0.0000011 Da
Mass Number72
G-Factor
0.6 ± 0.1
Half Life
78.6 ± 2.4 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

72Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

73Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
72.931673441 ± 0.000007237 Da
Mass Number73
G-Factor
Half Life
3.4 ± 0.2 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

73Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

74Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
73.929910279 ± 0.000006264 Da
Mass Number74
G-Factor
0
Half Life
25.4 ± 0.3 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity-

74Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

75Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
74.925810566 ± 0.0000046 Da
Mass Number75
G-Factor
0.50666666666667 ± 0.12
Half Life
96.7 ± 1.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

75Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

76Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
75.924541574 ± 0.000010007 Da
Mass Number76
G-Factor
0.5477 ± 0.0001
Half Life
16.2 ± 0.2 h
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.251 ± 0.004
Discovery Year1952
Parity-

76Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

77Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
76.921379193 ± 0.000003017 Da
Mass Number77
G-Factor
0.64873333333333 ± 0.0004
Half Life
57.04 ± 0.12 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.5 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

77Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

78Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
77.921145858 ± 0.000003842 Da
Mass Number78
G-Factor
0.13 ± 0.03
Half Life
6.45 ± 0.04 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

78Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β (β decay)0.01%

79Br

Abundance
50.65 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
78.918337574 ± 0.000001074 Da
Mass Number79
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.3087 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1920
Parity-

80Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
79.918529784 ± 0.000001065 Da
Mass Number80
G-Factor
0.5135 ± 0.0006
Half Life
17.68 ± 0.02 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.182 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

80Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)91.7%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)8.3%

81Br

Abundance
49.35 ± 0.09
Relative Atomic Mass
80.916288197 ± 0.000001049 Da
Mass Number81
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1920
Parity-

82Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
81.916801752 ± 0.000001042 Da
Mass Number82
G-Factor
0.32512 ± 0.00012
Half Life
35.282 ± 0.007 h
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
0.697 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

82Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

83Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
82.915175285 ± 0.000004073 Da
Mass Number83
G-Factor
Half Life
2.374 ± 0.004 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

83Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

84Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
83.916496417 ± 0.000027622 Da
Mass Number84
G-Factor
0.95 ± 0.35
Half Life
31.76 ± 0.08 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

84Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

85Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
84.915645758 ± 0.000003304 Da
Mass Number85
G-Factor
Half Life
2.9 ± 0.06 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

85Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

86Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
85.918805432 ± 0.000003304 Da
Mass Number86
G-Factor
Half Life
55.1 ± 0.4 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1962
Parity-

86Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

87Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
86.920674016 ± 0.000003404 Da
Mass Number87
G-Factor
Half Life
55.68 ± 0.12 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

87Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.6%

88Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
87.92408329 ± 0.000003404 Da
Mass Number88
G-Factor
Half Life
16.34 ± 0.08 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

88Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.58%

89Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
88.926704558 ± 0.000003504 Da
Mass Number89
G-Factor
Half Life
4.357 ± 0.022 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity-

89Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)13.8%

90Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
89.931292848 ± 0.000003604 Da
Mass Number90
G-Factor
Half Life
1.91 ± 0.01 s
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity

90Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25.3%

91Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
90.934398617 ± 0.000003804 Da
Mass Number91
G-Factor
Half Life
543 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

91Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)29.5%

92Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
91.939631595 ± 0.000007202 Da
Mass Number92
G-Factor
Half Life
314 ± 16 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

92Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33.1%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

93Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
92.94322 ± 0.0004625 Da
Mass Number93
G-Factor
Half Life
152 ± 8 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

93Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)64%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

94Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
93.948846 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number94
G-Factor
Half Life
70 ± 20 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

94Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)68%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

95Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
94.952925 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number95
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

95Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

96Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
95.95898 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number96
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

96Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

97Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
96.963499 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number97
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

97Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

98Br

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
97.969887 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number98
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity

98Br Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

Carl Jacob Löwig discovered bromine in 1825, while still a chemistry student at Heidelberg University, Germany. Antoine Balard distilled the bromine from a solution of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine in 1824. He finally published his results in 1826, providing evidence that the substance he had discovered was a new element. From the Greek word bromos, stench

DiscoverersAntoine J. Balard
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1826
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: brômos (stench).
PronunciationBRO-meen (English)
Bromine is poisonous and causes skin burns
Bromine is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

Uses

Bromine is used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicines and sanitizers. Potassium bromide is used as a source of bromide ions for the manufacture of silver bromide for photographic film. Bromine is also used to reduce mercury pollution from coal-fired power plants. It was once used in large quantities to make a compound that removed lead compound build up in engines burning leaded gasoline. Now it is primarily used in dyes, disinfectants, and photographic chemicals.

Sources

Occurs in compounds in sea water.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.4 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
67.3 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.00029 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.00012 %
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe
0.0000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7529
2p3.9436
2s9.3566
3d15.4409
3p15.4292
3s14.7815
4p25.972
4s24.4472