Bromine

Bromine (Br)

Bromine is the 35th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Br and atomic number of 35. It has an atomic weight of 79.904 and a mass number of 79. Bromine has thirty-five protons and forty-four neutrons in its nucleus, and thirty-five electrons in four shells. It is located in group seventeen, period four and block p of the periodic table. Halogen element. Red volatile liquid at room temperature. Its reactivity is somewhere between chlorine and iodine. Harmful to human tissue in a liquid state, the vapour irritates eyes and throat. Discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard.
Atomic Number35
Atomic Weight79.904
Mass Number79
Group17
Period4
Blockp
Protons35 p+
Neutrons44 n0
Electrons35 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Br (Bromine)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
115 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
114 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
196 pm
Crystal Radius
182 pm
Van der Waals Radius
185 pm
Density
3.1028 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Bromine020406080100120140160180200pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
554.4 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
3.3635882 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
11.81381 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Br (Bromine)
Heat of Vaporization
29.56 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
10.57 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
111.85 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 7
Bohr Model: Br (Bromine)
Valence Electrons7
Lewis Structure: Br (Bromine)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p5
Enhanced Bohr Model of Br (Bromine)
Orbital Diagram of Br (Bromine)
Oxidation States-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7
Electronegativity
2.96
Electrophilicity Index
3.4075054710599915 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseLiquid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
331.95 K
Melting Point
265.95 K
Critical Pressure
10.34 MPa
Critical Temperature
588.15 K
Triple Point
265.9 K
5.879 kPa
Visual

Bromine is a Red. Br has a CPK of #a52a2a, Jmol of #a62929, and MOLCAS GV of #a62929. The Refractive Index of Element 35 is 1.001132.

Color
Red
Appearance
Refractive Index
1.001132
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.005 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
75.69 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.474 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeInsulator
Electrical Conductivity
0.0000000000000001 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
10,000,000,000 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000049 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000783 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000153
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Bromine is ORC. The lattice constant of Br is 6.67 Å. The lattice angles of Element 35 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
Lattice Constant
6.67 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

The Bulk Modulus of Bromine is 1.9 GPa.

Hardness
Bulk Modulus
1.9 GPa
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Bromine is VIIB. The IUPAC Group of Br is VIIA. The Glawe Number of Element 35 is 100. The Mendeleev Number of Bromine (Br) is 108. The Pettifor Number of Bromine is 98. The Geochemical Class of Br is semi-volatile. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 35 is litophile.

CategoryHalogens, Halogens
CAS GroupVIIB
IUPAC GroupVIIA
Glawe Number100
Mendeleev Number108
Pettifor Number98
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Bromine is 531.2 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of Br is 21 plus or minus 1 a₀. Element 35 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 162 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 187 a₀. The Allotropes of Bromine (Br) is Dibromine. The Neutron Cross Section of Bromine is 6.8. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Br is 0.002. The Quantum Numbers of Element 35 is 2P3/2. The Space Group of Bromine (Br) is 64 (Cmca).

Gas Basicity
531.2 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
21 ± 1 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
162 a₀
AllotropesDibromine
Neutron Cross Section
6.8
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.002
Quantum Numbers2P3/2
Space Group64 (Cmca)

Isotopes of Bromine

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes32
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition7950.65%7950.65%8149.35%8149.35%

65Br

Mass Number65
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
64.982297 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

66Br

Mass Number66
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
65.974697 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

67Br

Mass Number67
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
66.965078 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

68Br

Mass Number68
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
67.958356 ± 0.000278 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1995
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

69Br

Mass Number69
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
68.95033841 ± 0.000045091 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1988
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

70Br

Mass Number70
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
69.944792321 ± 0.000016 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
78.8 ± 0.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

71Br

Mass Number71
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
70.939342153 ± 0.000005799 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
21.4 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

72Br

Mass Number72
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
71.936594606 ± 0.0000011 Da
G-Factor
0.6 ± 0.1
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
78.6 ± 2.4 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

73Br

Mass Number73
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
72.931673441 ± 0.000007237 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
3.4 ± 0.2 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

74Br

Mass Number74
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
73.929910279 ± 0.000006264 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
25.4 ± 0.3 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1952
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

75Br

Mass Number75
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
74.925810566 ± 0.0000046 Da
G-Factor
0.50666666666667 ± 0.12
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
96.7 ± 1.3 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

76Br

Mass Number76
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
75.924541574 ± 0.000010007 Da
G-Factor
0.5477 ± 0.0001
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
16.2 ± 0.2 h
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.251 ± 0.004
Discovery Year1952
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

77Br

Mass Number77
Neutron Number42
Relative Atomic Mass
76.921379193 ± 0.000003017 Da
G-Factor
0.64873333333333 ± 0.0004
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
57.04 ± 0.12 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.5 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

78Br

Mass Number78
Neutron Number43
Relative Atomic Mass
77.921145858 ± 0.000003842 Da
G-Factor
0.13 ± 0.03
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
6.45 ± 0.04 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β (β decay)0.01%

79Br

Mass Number79
Neutron Number44
Relative Atomic Mass
78.918337574 ± 0.000001074 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
50.65 ± 0.09
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.3087 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1920
Parity-

80Br

Mass Number80
Neutron Number45
Relative Atomic Mass
79.918529784 ± 0.000001065 Da
G-Factor
0.5135 ± 0.0006
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
17.68 ± 0.02 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.182 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)91.7%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)8.3%

81Br

Mass Number81
Neutron Number46
Relative Atomic Mass
80.916288197 ± 0.000001049 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
49.35 ± 0.09
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1920
Parity-

82Br

Mass Number82
Neutron Number47
Relative Atomic Mass
81.916801752 ± 0.000001042 Da
G-Factor
0.32512 ± 0.00012
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
35.282 ± 0.007 h
Spin5
Quadrupole Moment
0.697 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

83Br

Mass Number83
Neutron Number48
Relative Atomic Mass
82.915175285 ± 0.000004073 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.374 ± 0.004 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

84Br

Mass Number84
Neutron Number49
Relative Atomic Mass
83.916496417 ± 0.000027622 Da
G-Factor
0.95 ± 0.35
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
31.76 ± 0.08 m
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

85Br

Mass Number85
Neutron Number50
Relative Atomic Mass
84.915645758 ± 0.000003304 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.9 ± 0.06 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

86Br

Mass Number86
Neutron Number51
Relative Atomic Mass
85.918805432 ± 0.000003304 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
55.1 ± 0.4 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1962
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

87Br

Mass Number87
Neutron Number52
Relative Atomic Mass
86.920674016 ± 0.000003404 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
55.68 ± 0.12 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1943
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2.6%

88Br

Mass Number88
Neutron Number53
Relative Atomic Mass
87.92408329 ± 0.000003404 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
16.34 ± 0.08 s
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1948
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)6.58%

89Br

Mass Number89
Neutron Number54
Relative Atomic Mass
88.926704558 ± 0.000003504 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.357 ± 0.022 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)13.8%

90Br

Mass Number90
Neutron Number55
Relative Atomic Mass
89.931292848 ± 0.000003604 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.91 ± 0.01 s
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1959
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)25.3%

91Br

Mass Number91
Neutron Number56
Relative Atomic Mass
90.934398617 ± 0.000003804 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
543 ± 4 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)29.5%

92Br

Mass Number92
Neutron Number57
Relative Atomic Mass
91.939631595 ± 0.000007202 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
314 ± 16 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1974
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)33.1%
2n (2-neutron emission)

93Br

Mass Number93
Neutron Number58
Relative Atomic Mass
92.94322 ± 0.0004625 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
152 ± 8 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)64%
2n (2-neutron emission)

94Br

Mass Number94
Neutron Number59
Relative Atomic Mass
93.948846 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
70 ± 20 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)68%
2n (2-neutron emission)

95Br

Mass Number95
Neutron Number60
Relative Atomic Mass
94.952925 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

96Br

Mass Number96
Neutron Number61
Relative Atomic Mass
95.95898 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

97Br

Mass Number97
Neutron Number62
Relative Atomic Mass
96.963499 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

98Br

Mass Number98
Neutron Number63
Relative Atomic Mass
97.969887 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Bromine vial in acrylic cube

History

Carl Jacob Löwig discovered bromine in 1825, while still a chemistry student at Heidelberg University, Germany. Antoine Balard distilled the bromine from a solution of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine in 1824. He finally published his results in 1826, providing evidence that the substance he had discovered was a new element. From the Greek word bromos, stench

DiscoverersAntoine J. Balard
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1826
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: brômos (stench).
PronunciationBRO-meen (English)
Bromine is poisonous and causes skin burns
Bromine is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

Uses

Bromine is used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicines and sanitizers. Potassium bromide is used as a source of bromide ions for the manufacture of silver bromide for photographic film. Bromine is also used to reduce mercury pollution from coal-fired power plants. It was once used in large quantities to make a compound that removed lead compound build up in engines burning leaded gasoline. Now it is primarily used in dyes, disinfectants, and photographic chemicals.

Sources

Occurs in compounds in sea water.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.4 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
67.3 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.00029 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.00012 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
Abundance in Universe
0.0000007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.7529
2p3.9436
2s9.3566
3d15.4409
3p15.4292
3s14.7815
4p25.972
4s24.4472

Also Known As

  • Br
  • element 35
  • 35Br

Translations

  • Norwegian Bokmålbrom
  • Frenchbrome
  • Italianbromo
  • GermanBrom
  • Dutchbroom
  • Spanishbromo
  • Danishbrom
  • Norwegian Nynorskbrom
  • Hungarianbróm
  • Afrikaansbroom
  • Amharicብሮሚን
  • AragoneseBromo
  • Arabicبروم
  • AzerbaijaniBrom
  • BelarusianБром
  • Bulgarianбром
  • Banglaব্রোমিন
  • BretonBrom
  • Bosnianbrom
  • Catalanbrom
  • CorsicanBromu
  • Czechbrom
  • ChuvashБром
  • WelshBromin
  • Greekβρώμιο
  • Esperantobromo
  • Estonianbroom
  • Basquebromo
  • Persianبرم
  • Finnishbromi
  • FriulianBrom
  • IrishBróimín
  • Galicianbromo
  • Manxbromeen
  • Hakka ChineseChhiu
  • Hebrewברום
  • Hindiब्रोमीन
  • Fiji HindiBromine
  • CroatianBrom
  • Haitian CreoleBwòm
  • Armenianբրոմ
  • Interlinguabromo
  • Indonesianbromin
  • Idobromo
  • Icelandicbróm
  • Japanese臭素
  • Lojbanxunkliru
  • JavaneseBrom
  • Georgianბრომი
  • KazakhБром
  • Kannadaಬ್ರೋಮಿನ್
  • Korean브로민
  • KomiБром
  • Latinbromum
  • LuxembourgishBrom
  • LigurianBrommo
  • LithuanianBromas
  • Latvianbroms
  • Māoripūkane
  • MacedonianБром
  • Malayalamബ്രോമിൻ
  • Marathiब्रोमिन
  • Western MariБром
  • Malaybromin
  • Burmeseဘရိုမင်း
  • Low GermanBrom
  • OccitanBròme
  • Punjabiਬ੍ਰੋਮੀਨ
  • Polishbrom
  • Western Panjabiبرومائن
  • Portuguesebromo
  • QuechuaBromu
  • Romanianbrom
  • Russianбром
  • Serbo-CroatianBrom
  • SlovakBróm
  • SlovenianBrom
  • AlbanianBromi
  • Serbianбром
  • Saterland FrisianBromium
  • Swedishbrom
  • SwahiliBromi
  • Tamilபுரோமின்
  • Teluguబ్రోమిన్
  • TajikБром
  • Thaiโบรมีน
  • TagalogBromina
  • TurkishBrom
  • TatarБром
  • Uyghurبروم
  • Ukrainianбром
  • UzbekBrom
  • VepsBrom
  • Vietnamesebrom
  • WarayBromo
  • KalmykБром
  • Yiddishבראם
  • YorubaBromine
  • Chinese
  • Northern FrisianBrom
  • CebuanoBromo
  • Central Kurdishبرۆم
  • Gujaratiબ્રોમિન
  • Odiaବ୍ରୋମିନ
  • PiedmonteseBròm
  • Scotsbromine
  • SomaliBoromiin
  • ErzyaБром
  • Literary Chinese
  • Min Nan ChineseChhàu-sò͘
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)бром
  • Cantonese
  • Newariब्रोमिन
  • Sicilianbromu
  • AromanianBromu
  • KyrgyzБром
  • cdoChéu
  • FaroeseBrom
  • Portuguese (Brazil)bromo
  • Sanskritब्रोमिन
  • LombardBrom
  • Maltesebromu
  • AsturianBromu
  • Nepaliब्रोमिन
  • Scottish GaelicBròmain
  • Sinhalaබ්‍රෝමීන්
  • LimburgishBroeam
  • Gan Chinese
  • Paliब्रोमिन
  • azbبروم
  • Mongolianбром
  • Urduبرومین
  • Bhojpuriब्रोमीन
  • Tibetanརྦོར་མིན།
  • SundaneseBromin
  • GandaBbolomayini
  • Lingua Franca Novabromo
  • Wu Chinese
  • kbpPurom
  • oloBrom
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • SardinianBromu
  • BashkirБром
  • Moroccan Arabicبروم
  • German (Switzerland)Brom
  • English (Canada)Bromine
  • English (United Kingdom)bromine
  • Pashtoبرومين
  • Egyptian Arabicبروم
  • BikolBromina
  • CornishBromin
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • BalineseBrom
  • Malay (Arabic)برومين
  • Skolt Samibroom
  • Northern Samibroma
  • Inari Samibromi
  • ZuluUmBhulufu