Bromine

Bromine (Br)

Halogen element. Red volatile liquid at room temperature. Its reactivity is somewhere between chlorine and iodine. Harmful to human tissue in a liquid state, the vapour irritates eyes and throat. Discovered in 1826 by Antoine Balard.
Atomic Number35
Atomic Weight79.904
Mass Number79
Group17
Period4
Blockp
Protons35 p+
Neutrons44 n0
Electrons35 e-
Bromine vial in acrylic cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
115 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
113.99999999999999 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
196 pm
Crystal Radius
182 pm
Van der Waals radius
185 pm
Density
3.1028 g/cm³
Boiling Point
331.9 K
Melting Point
265.9 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 7
Electronegativity
2.96
Electrophilicity
3.40750547106 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
554.4 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
3.3635882 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
11.81381 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
29.56 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
10.57 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
111.85 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
75.69 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.474 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
0.005 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
531.2 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
21 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
162 a₀
Oxidation States-1, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7
Color
Red
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
Lattice Constant
6.67 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseLiquid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryHalogens, Halogens
CAS GroupVIIB
IUPAC GroupVIIA
Glawe Number100
Mendeleev Number108
Pettifor Number98
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
2.4 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
67.3 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe7×10-7%

Isotopes of Bromine

Stable Isotopes
79Br 81Br
Unstable Isotopes
67Br 68Br 69Br 70Br 71Br 72Br 73Br 74Br 75Br 76Br 77Br 78Br 80Br 82Br 83Br 84Br 85Br 86Br 87Br 88Br 89Br 90Br 91Br 92Br 93Br 94Br 95Br 96Br 97Br

History

Carl Jacob Löwig discovered bromine in 1825, while still a chemistry student at Heidelberg University, Germany. Antoine Balard distilled the bromine from a solution of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine in 1824. He finally published his results in 1826, providing evidence that the substance he had discovered was a new element. From the Greek word bromos, stench

DiscoverersAntoine J. Balard
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1826
Name OriginGreek: brômos (stench).
Bromine is poisonous and causes skin burns
Bromine is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid at ordinary temperatures

Uses

Bromine is used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicines and sanitizers. Potassium bromide is used as a source of bromide ions for the manufacture of silver bromide for photographic film. Bromine is also used to reduce mercury pollution from coal-fired power plants. It was once used in large quantities to make a compound that removed lead compound build up in engines burning leaded gasoline. Now it is primarily used in dyes, disinfectants, and photographic chemicals.

Sources

Occurs in compounds in sea water.