Calcium

Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is the 20th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Ca and atomic number of 20. It has an atomic weight of 40.078 and a mass number of 40. Calcium has twenty protons and twenty neutrons in its nucleus, and twenty electrons in four shells. It is located in group two, period four and block s of the periodic table. Soft grey metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table. Used a reducing agent in the extraction of thorium, zirconium and uranium. Essential element for living organisms.
Atomic Number20
Atomic Weight40.078
Mass Number40
Group2
Period4
Blocks
Protons20 p+
Neutrons20 n0
Electrons20 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Ca (Calcium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
171 pm
Metallic Radius
174 pm
Ionic Radius
100 pm
Crystal Radius
114 pm
Van der Waals Radius
231 pm
Density
1.54 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Calcium0153045607590105120135150165180195210225240pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.02455 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
6.1131552 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Ca (Calcium)
Heat of Vaporization
153.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
9.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
177.8 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 8, 2
Bohr Model: Ca (Calcium)
Valence Electrons2
Lewis Structure: Ca (Calcium)
Electron Configuration[Ar] 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
Enhanced Bohr Model of Ca (Calcium)
Orbital Diagram of Ca (Calcium)
Oxidation States1, 2
Electronegativity
1
Electrophilicity Index
0.7734001442996138 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,757.15 K
Melting Point
1,115.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual

Calcium is a Silver. Ca has a CPK of #808090, Jmol of #3dff00, and MOLCAS GV of #3dff00.

Color
Silver
Appearance
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000223 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.929 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.647 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
29 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000003399999999999 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000138 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000005531 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.00002139
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Calcium is FCC. The lattice constant of Ca is 5.58 Å. The lattice angles of Element 20 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
5.58 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Calcium has a Brinell of 167 MPa, and Mohs hardness of 1.75 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Ca is 17 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 20 is 7.4 GPa. The Young Modulus of Calcium (Ca) is 20 GPa. The Poisson Ratio of Calcium is 0.31. The Speed of Sound of Ca is 3810 m/s.

Hardness
1.75 MPa
Bulk Modulus
17 GPa
Shear Modulus
7.4 GPa
Young's Modulus
20 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.31
Speed of Sound
3,810 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Calcium is IIA. The IUPAC Group of Ca is IIA. The Glawe Number of Element 20 is 16. The Mendeleev Number of Calcium (Ca) is 7. The Pettifor Number of Calcium is 16. The Geochemical Class of Ca is major. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 20 is litophile.

CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number16
Mendeleev Number7
Pettifor Number16
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Calcium is 160.8 plus or minus 4 a₀. Ca has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 2163 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 2230 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 20 is . The Neutron Cross Section of Calcium (Ca) is 0.43. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Calcium is 0.00037. The Quantum Numbers of Ca is 1S0. The Space Group of Element 20 is 225 (Fm_3m).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
160.8 ± 4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
2,163 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.43
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00037
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Calcium

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes26
Natural Isotopes6
Isotopic Composition4096.94%4096.94%442.09%442.09%420.65%420.65%430.14%430.14%460.00%460.00%480.19%480.19%

33Ca

Mass Number33
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
33.033312 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

34Ca

Mass Number34
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
34.015985 ± 0.000322 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)

35Ca

Mass Number35
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
35.005572 ± 0.000215 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
25.7 ± 0.2 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)95.8%
2p (2-proton emission)4.2%

36Ca

Mass Number36
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
35.993074388 ± 0.000042941 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
100.9 ± 1.3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)51.2%

37Ca

Mass Number37
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
36.985897849 ± 0.00000068 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
181 ± 0.9 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)76.8%

38Ca

Mass Number38
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
37.976319223 ± 0.000000208 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
443.7 ± 0.25 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1966
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

39Ca

Mass Number39
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
38.970710811 ± 0.00000064 Da
G-Factor
0.68093333333333 ± 0.00010666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
860.3 ± 0.8 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.038 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1943
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

40Ca

Mass Number40
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
39.96259085 ± 0.000000022 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
96.941 ± 0.156
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)

41Ca

Mass Number41
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
40.962277905 ± 0.000000147 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
99.4 ± 1.5 ky
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0665 ± 0.0018
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

42Ca

Mass Number42
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
41.95861778 ± 0.000000159 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
0.647 ± 0.023
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

43Ca

Mass Number43
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
42.958766381 ± 0.000000244 Da
G-Factor
-0.37638 ± 0.000017142857142857
Abundance
0.135 ± 0.01
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0408 ± 0.0008
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

44Ca

Mass Number44
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
43.955481489 ± 0.000000348 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
2.086 ± 0.11
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

45Ca

Mass Number45
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
44.95618627 ± 0.000000392 Da
G-Factor
-0.37897142857143 ± 0.00037142857142857
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
162.61 ± 0.09 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.038 ± 0.012
Discovery Year1940
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

46Ca

Mass Number46
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
45.953687726 ± 0.000002398 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
0.004 ± 0.003
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)

47Ca

Mass Number47
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
46.954541134 ± 0.000002384 Da
G-Factor
-0.40182857142857 ± 0.00031428571428571
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.536 ± 0.003 d
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.084 ± 0.006
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

48Ca

Mass Number48
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
47.952522654 ± 0.000000018 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
0.187 ± 0.021
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
56 ± 10 Ey
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)
β (β decay)

49Ca

Mass Number49
Neutron Number29
Relative Atomic Mass
48.955662625 ± 0.00000019 Da
G-Factor
-0.91993333333333 ± 0.00053333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.718 ± 0.006 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.036 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

50Ca

Mass Number50
Neutron Number30
Relative Atomic Mass
49.957499215 ± 0.0000017 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
13.45 ± 0.05 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1964
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

51Ca

Mass Number51
Neutron Number31
Relative Atomic Mass
50.960995663 ± 0.00000056 Da
G-Factor
-0.69973333333333 ± 0.00073333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
10 ± 0.8 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.036 ± 0.012
Discovery Year1980
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

52Ca

Mass Number52
Neutron Number32
Relative Atomic Mass
51.963213646 ± 0.00000072 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.6 ± 0.3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2%

53Ca

Mass Number53
Neutron Number33
Relative Atomic Mass
52.968451 ± 0.000047 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
461 ± 90 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1983
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)40%

54Ca

Mass Number54
Neutron Number34
Relative Atomic Mass
53.972989 ± 0.000052 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
90 ± 6 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

55Ca

Mass Number55
Neutron Number35
Relative Atomic Mass
54.979978 ± 0.000172 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
22 ± 2 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

56Ca

Mass Number56
Neutron Number36
Relative Atomic Mass
55.985496 ± 0.000268 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

57Ca

Mass Number57
Neutron Number37
Relative Atomic Mass
56.992958 ± 0.000429 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2009
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

58Ca

Mass Number58
Neutron Number38
Relative Atomic Mass
57.998357 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2009
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

59Ca

Mass Number59
Neutron Number39
Relative Atomic Mass
59.006237 ± 0.000644 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

60Ca

Mass Number60
Neutron Number40
Relative Atomic Mass
60.011809 ± 0.000751 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

61Ca

Mass Number61
Neutron Number41
Relative Atomic Mass
61.020408 ± 0.000859 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Calcium 1

History

Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide. Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself. From the Latin word calx, lime

DiscoverersSir Humphrey Davy
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1808
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: calx, calcis (lime).
PronunciationKAL-si-em (English)
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate

Uses

Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys. It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys. Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium. Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone. Used by many forms of life to make shells and bones. Virtually no use for the pure metal, however two of its compounds are, lime (CaO) and gypsum (CaSO4), are in great demand by a number of industries.

Sources

Obtained from minerals like chalk, limestone & marble. Pure metal is produced by replacing the calcium in lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) with aluminium in hot, low pressure retorts.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
41,500 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
412 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
1.4 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
1.1 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.007 %
Abundance in Universe
0.007 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.527
2p3.9586
2s6.2236
3p11.3417
3s10.3985
4s15.602

Also Known As

  • Ca
  • element 20
  • 20Ca

Translations

  • Italiancalcio
  • Norwegian Bokmålkalsium
  • Frenchcalcium
  • Russianкальций
  • GermanCalcium
  • Polishwapń
  • Dutchcalcium
  • Spanishcalcio
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Afrikaanskalsium
  • Amharicካልሲየም
  • AragoneseCalcio
  • Arabicكالسيوم
  • AsturianCalciu
  • AzerbaijaniKalsium
  • BashkirКальций
  • BelarusianКальцый
  • Bulgarianкалций
  • Banglaক্যালসিয়াম
  • BretonKalsiom
  • Bosniankalcij
  • Catalancalci
  • CherokeeᎪᎳ ᏗᏝᏂᎪᎯᏍᏗᏍᎩ
  • Central Kurdishکالسیۆم
  • Corsicancalciu
  • Czechvápník
  • ChuvashКальци
  • WelshCalsiwm
  • Danishcalcium
  • Divehiކެލްސިއަމް
  • Greekασβέστιο
  • Esperantokalcio
  • Estoniankaltsium
  • Basquekaltzio
  • Persianکلسیم
  • Finnishkalsium
  • Northern FrisianKaltsium
  • FriulianCalci
  • IrishCailciam
  • GalicianCalcio
  • Manxkelkium
  • Hakka ChineseKoi
  • HawaiianKalipuna
  • Hebrewסידן
  • Hindiकैल्शियम
  • Fiji HindiCalcium
  • Croatiankalcij
  • Haitian CreoleKalsyòm
  • Hungariankalcium
  • Armenianկալցիում
  • Interlinguacalcium
  • Indonesiankalsium
  • Idokalcio
  • Icelandickalsín
  • Japaneseカルシウム
  • Lojbanbogjinme
  • JavaneseKalsium
  • Georgianკალციუმი
  • KazakhКальций
  • Kannadaಕ್ಯಾಲ್ಶಿಯಮ್
  • Korean칼슘
  • KurdishKalsiyûm
  • KomiКальций
  • Latincalcium
  • LuxembourgishKalzium
  • LigurianCäso
  • Lithuaniankalcis
  • Latviankalcijs
  • Māorikonupūmā
  • MacedonianКалциум
  • Malayalamകാൽ സ്യം
  • Mongolianкальци
  • Marathiकॅल्शियम
  • Western MariКальций
  • Malaykalsium
  • Burmeseကယ်လဆီယမ်
  • nahTenextepoztli
  • Low GermanCalcium
  • Nepaliक्याल्सियम
  • Norwegian Nynorskkalsium
  • NavajoKáálsiiyin
  • OccitanCalci
  • Punjabiਕੈਲਸ਼ੀਅਮ
  • PiedmonteseCàuss
  • Western Panjabiکیلشیم
  • Portuguesecálcio
  • QuechuaIsku q'illay
  • Romaniancalciu
  • YakutКалсиум
  • Siciliancauciu
  • Serbo-CroatianKalcij
  • Sinhalaකැල්සියම්
  • Slovakvápnik
  • Sloveniankalcij
  • AlbanianKalciumi
  • Serbianкалцијум
  • Saterland FrisianCalcium
  • SundaneseKalsium
  • Swedishkalcium
  • SwahiliKalisi
  • Tamilகல்சியம்
  • Teluguకాల్షియమ్
  • TajikКалсий
  • Thaiแคลเซียม
  • TagalogKalsiyo
  • TurkishKalsiyum
  • Uyghurكالتىسىي
  • Ukrainianкальцій
  • Urduجمصر
  • UzbekKalsiy
  • VepsKal'cii
  • Vietnamesecanxi
  • WarayCalsyo
  • KalmykКалцион
  • Yiddishקאלציום
  • YorubaCalcium
  • Chinese
  • German (Switzerland)Calcium
  • English (Canada)Calcium
  • English (United Kingdom)calcium
  • Portuguese (Brazil)cálcio
  • CebuanoKalsiyum
  • Cantonese
  • Gujaratiકેલ્શિયમ
  • Odiaକ୍ୟାଲ୍‌ସିଅମ
  • Scotscalcium
  • GuaraniItakairã
  • Tatarкәлси
  • BavarianCalcium
  • KikuyuCalcium
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)Вапень
  • Min Nan ChineseKhā-lú-siúm
  • Newariक्याल्सियम
  • LombardCàls
  • SomaliKaalshiyaam
  • KyrgyzКальций
  • LimburgishCalcium
  • cdoGái
  • FaroeseKalsium
  • Sanskritक्याल्सियम
  • Scottish GaelicCalcium
  • Maltesekalċju
  • Gan Chinese
  • AromanianCalciu
  • Paliक्याल्सियम
  • ExtremaduranCalciu
  • Tibetanདཀར་ཤམ།
  • Bhojpuriकैल्सियम
  • oloKal’cii
  • azbکلسیوم
  • Lingua Franca Novacalsio
  • Wu Chinese
  • kbpKalɩsɩyɔm
  • Sindhiڪيلشم
  • Pashtoکلسيم
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • SardinianCàlciu
  • Moroccan Arabicكالسيوم
  • Egyptian Arabicكالسيوم
  • FijianCalcium
  • WalloonCalciom
  • CornishKalciom
  • BikolKalsyo
  • BalineseKalsium
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Inuktitutᓴᐅᓂᒃᓴᖅ
  • GandaKalusiyaamu
  • Korean (North Korea)칼시움
  • blkကယ်လသီယမ်
  • Malay (Arabic)کلسيوم
  • ShonaRondongu
  • ZuluUmCaphana