Calcium

Calcium (Ca)

Soft grey metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table. Used a reducing agent in the extraction of thorium, zirconium and uranium. Essential element for living organisms.
Atomic Number20
Atomic Weight40.078
Mass Number40
Group2
Period4
Blocks
Protons20 p+
Neutrons20 n0
Electrons20 e-
Calcium 1.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
171 pm
Metallic Radius
174 pm
Ionic Radius
100 pm
Crystal Radius
113.99999999999999 pm
Van der Waals radius
231 pm
Density
1.54 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,757 K
Melting Point
1,112 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 8, 2
Electronegativity
1
Electrophilicity
0.7734001442996 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.02455 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
6.1131552 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
153.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
9.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
177.8 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
25.929 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.647 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
160.8 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
2,163 a₀
Oxidation States1, 2
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
5.58 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 4s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryAlkaline earth metals, Alkaline earth metals
CAS GroupIIA
IUPAC GroupIIA
Glawe Number16
Mendeleev Number7
Pettifor Number16
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
41,500 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
412 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.007%

Isotopes of Calcium

Stable Isotopes
40Ca 42Ca 43Ca 44Ca 46Ca 48Ca
Unstable Isotopes
34Ca 35Ca 36Ca 37Ca 38Ca 39Ca 41Ca 45Ca 47Ca 49Ca 50Ca 51Ca 52Ca 53Ca 54Ca 55Ca 56Ca 57Ca

History

Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide. Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself. From the Latin word calx, lime

DiscoverersSir Humphrey Davy
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1808
Name OriginLatin: calx, calcis (lime).
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate

Uses

Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys. It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys. Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium. Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone. Used by many forms of life to make shells and bones. Virtually no use for the pure metal, however two of its compounds are, lime (CaO) and gypsum (CaSO4), are in great demand by a number of industries.

Sources

Obtained from minerals like chalk, limestone & marble. Pure metal is produced by replacing the calcium in lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) with aluminium in hot, low pressure retorts.