Хром

Хром (Cr)

chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24
Atomic Number24
Atomic Weight51.9961
mass number52
Group6
Period4
Blockd
Протон24 p+
Нейтрон28 n0
Электрон24 e-
Animated Bohr model of Cr (Хром)

Physical Property

Атомдук Радиус
140 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
122 pm
Metallic Radius
119 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
206 pm
density
7,15 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Хром0153045607590105120135150165180195210pmАтомдук РадиусCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

энергия
proton affinity
791,3 kJ/mol
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,76651 eV/particle
ionization energy of Cr (Хром)
enthalpy of vaporization
342 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
standard enthalpy of formation
397,48 kJ/mol
Электрон
electron shell2, 8, 13, 1
Bohr model: Cr (Хром)
valence electron1
Lewis structure: Cr (Хром)
electron configuration[Ar] 3d5 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
Enhanced Bohr model of Cr (Хром)
Orbital Diagram of Cr (Хром)
oxidation number-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
electronegativity
1.66
Electrophilicity Index
1,1319177597467263 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2 944,15 K
Melting Point
2 180,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Түс –
Silver
appearancesilvery metallic
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
93,9 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,0000049 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,35 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,449 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
7,9 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000013 m Ω
superconductivity
Магнетизм
typeantiferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000445 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,000000002314 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,0003177
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
393 K
түзүм
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
lattice constant
2,88 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
8,5 MPa
bulk modulus
160 GPa
shear modulus
115 GPa
Young's modulus
279 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,21
speed of sound
5 940 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIA
IUPAC GroupVIB
Glawe Number55
Mendeleev Number51
Pettifor Number57
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Литофиль элементтериlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
768,4 kJ/mol
polarizability
83 ± 12 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
602 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
3,1
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0021
Кванттык сандар7S3
space group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Chromium

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes27
Natural Isotopes4
Isotopic Composition5283.79%5283.79%539.50%539.50%504.35%504.35%542.37%542.37%

41Cr

mass number41
neutron number17
relative atomic mass
41,021911 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

42Cr

mass number42
neutron number18
relative atomic mass
42,007579 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
13,3 ± 1 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1996
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)94.4%
2p (2-proton emission)

43Cr

mass number43
neutron number19
relative atomic mass
42,997885 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
21,1 ± 0,3 ms
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1992
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)79.3%
2p (2-proton emission)11.6%
3p0.13%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

44Cr

mass number44
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
43,985591 ± 0,000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
42,8 ± 0,6 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)12%

45Cr

mass number45
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
44,97905 ± 0,000038 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
60,9 ± 0,4 ms
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1974
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.4%

46Cr

mass number46
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
45,968360969 ± 0,000012295 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
224,3 ± 1,3 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1972
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

47Cr

mass number47
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
46,962894995 ± 0,000005578 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
461,6 ± 1,5 ms
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

48Cr

mass number48
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
47,954029431 ± 0,000007848 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
21,56 ± 0,03 h
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1952
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

49Cr

mass number49
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
48,95133372 ± 0,000002363 Da
g-factor
0,1904 ± 0,0012
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
42,3 ± 0,1 m
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1942
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

50Cr

mass number50
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
49,946042209 ± 0,0000001 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
4,345 ± 0,013
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1930
parity+

decay modeintensity
+ (double β+ decay)

51Cr

mass number51
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
50,944765388 ± 0,000000178 Da
g-factor
0,26685714285714 ± 0,0014285714285714
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
27,7015 ± 0,0011 d
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1940
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

52Cr

mass number52
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
51,940504714 ± 0,00000012 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
83,789 ± 0,018
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1923
parity+

53Cr

mass number53
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
52,940646304 ± 0,000000124 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
9,501 ± 0,017
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,15 ± 0,05
time of discovery or invention1930
parity-

54Cr

mass number54
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
53,938877359 ± 0,000000142 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2,365 ± 0,007
Радиоактивдүүлүкstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1930
parity+

55Cr

mass number55
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
54,940836637 ± 0,000000245 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
3,497 ± 0,003 m
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1952
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

56Cr

mass number56
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
55,940648977 ± 0,00000062 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
5,94 ± 0,1 m
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1960
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

57Cr

mass number57
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
56,943612112 ± 0,000002 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
21,1 ± 1 s
Спин3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1978
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

58Cr

mass number58
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
57,944184501 ± 0,0000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
7 ± 0,3 s
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

59Cr

mass number59
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
58,948345426 ± 0,00000072 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
1 050 ± 90 ms
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1980
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

60Cr

mass number60
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
59,949641656 ± 0,0000012 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
490 ± 10 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1980
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

61Cr

mass number61
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
60,95437813 ± 0,000002 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
243 ± 9 ms
Спин5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1985
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

62Cr

mass number62
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
61,95614292 ± 0,0000037 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
206 ± 12 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1985
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

63Cr

mass number63
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
62,961161 ± 0,000078 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
129 ± 2 ms
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1992
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

64Cr

mass number64
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
63,963886 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
43 ± 1 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1992
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

65Cr

mass number65
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
64,969608 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
27,5 ± 2,1 ms
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

66Cr

mass number66
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
65,973011 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
23,8 ± 1,8 ms
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1997
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

67Cr

mass number67
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
66,979313 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

68Cr

mass number68
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
67,983156 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2009
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

69Cr

mass number69
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
68,989662 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2013
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

70Cr

mass number70
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
69,993945 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Радиоактивдүүлүк☢️ Радиоактивдүү элементтер —
half-life
Спин0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention2013
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Chromium crystals and 1cm3 cube

тарых

discoverer or inventorLouis Vauquelin
location of discoveryFrance
time of discovery or invention1797
ЭтимологияGreek: chrôma (color).
pronunciationKROH-mi-em (англисче)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
102 mg/kg
natural abundance (Океан)
0,0003 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
0,000003 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,3 %
natural abundance (Күн)
0,002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,0015 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5862
2p3.9248
2s7.0162
3d14.2434
3p12.534
3s11.6322
4s18.8668