Krom

Krom (Cr)

element kimik me numër atomik 24
Atomic Number24
Atomic Weight51.9961
Numri i masës52
Group6
Period4
Blockd
protoni24 p+
neutroni28 n0
elektroni24 e-
Animated Bohr model of Cr (Krom)

Tipar Fizik

Atomic Radius
140 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
122 pm
Metallic Radius
119 pm
ionic radius
73 pm
Crystal Radius
87 pm
Van der Waals radius
206 pm
density
7,15 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Krom0153045607590105120135150165180195210pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energjia
proton affinity
791,3 kJ/mol
electron affinity
ionization energy
6,76651 eV/particle
ionization energy of Cr (Krom)
enthalpy of vaporization
342 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
standard enthalpy of formation
397,48 kJ/mol
elektroni
electron shell2, 8, 13, 1
Bohr model: Cr (Krom)
valence electron1
Lewis structure: Cr (Krom)
konfigurimi i elektronit[Ar] 3d5 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
Enhanced Bohr model of Cr (Krom)
Orbital Diagram of Cr (Krom)
oxidation number-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Elektronegativiteti
1.66
Electrophilicity Index
1,1319177597467263 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
gjendja agregate e materiesSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2 944,15 K
Melting Point
2 180,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
Ngjyra
Silver
appearancesilvery metallic
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
93,9 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,0000049 1/K
molar heat capacity
23,35 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,449 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
7,9 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000013 m Ω
Superpërcjellshmëria
Magnetizimi
typeantiferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
0,0000000445 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
0,000000002314 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
0,0003177
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
393 K
strukturë
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
lattice constant
2,88 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
8,5 MPa
bulk modulus
160 GPa
shear modulus
115 GPa
Young's modulus
279 GPa
Poisson's ratio
0,21
Shpejtësia e zërit
5 940 m/s
klasifikim
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIA
IUPAC GroupVIB
Glawe Number55
Mendeleev Number51
Pettifor Number57
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt classificationlitophile

other

Gas Basicity
768,4 kJ/mol
polarizability
83 ± 12 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
602 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
3,1
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0021
numër kuantik7S3
space group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Chromium

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes27
Natural Isotopes4
Isotopic Composition5283.79%5283.79%539.50%539.50%504.35%504.35%542.37%542.37%

41Cr

Numri i masës41
numri i neutroneve17
relative atomic mass
41,021911 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity+

decay modeintensitet
p (proton emission)

42Cr

Numri i masës42
numri i neutroneve18
relative atomic mass
42,007579 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13,3 ± 1 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1996
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)94.4%
2p (2-proton emission)

43Cr

Numri i masës43
numri i neutroneve19
relative atomic mass
42,997885 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21,1 ± 0,3 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1992
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)79.3%
2p (2-proton emission)11.6%
3p0.13%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)

44Cr

Numri i masës44
numri i neutroneve20
relative atomic mass
43,985591 ± 0,000055 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42,8 ± 0,6 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1987
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)12%

45Cr

Numri i masës45
numri i neutroneve21
relative atomic mass
44,97905 ± 0,000038 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
60,9 ± 0,4 ms
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1974
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)34.4%

46Cr

Numri i masës46
numri i neutroneve22
relative atomic mass
45,968360969 ± 0,000012295 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
224,3 ± 1,3 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

47Cr

Numri i masës47
numri i neutroneve23
relative atomic mass
46,962894995 ± 0,000005578 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
461,6 ± 1,5 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

48Cr

Numri i masës48
numri i neutroneve24
relative atomic mass
47,954029431 ± 0,000007848 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21,56 ± 0,03 h
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1952
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

49Cr

Numri i masës49
numri i neutroneve25
relative atomic mass
48,95133372 ± 0,000002363 Da
g-factor
0,1904 ± 0,0012
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
42,3 ± 0,1 m
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1942
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

50Cr

Numri i masës50
numri i neutroneve26
relative atomic mass
49,946042209 ± 0,0000001 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
4,345 ± 0,013
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1930
parity+

decay modeintensitet
+ (double β+ decay)

51Cr

Numri i masës51
numri i neutroneve27
relative atomic mass
50,944765388 ± 0,000000178 Da
g-factor
0,26685714285714 ± 0,0014285714285714
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
27,7015 ± 0,0011 d
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1940
parity-

decay modeintensitet
ϵ (electron capture)100%

52Cr

Numri i masës52
numri i neutroneve28
relative atomic mass
51,940504714 ± 0,00000012 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
83,789 ± 0,018
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1923
parity+

53Cr

Numri i masës53
numri i neutroneve29
relative atomic mass
52,940646304 ± 0,000000124 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
9,501 ± 0,017
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,15 ± 0,05
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1930
parity-

54Cr

Numri i masës54
numri i neutroneve30
relative atomic mass
53,938877359 ± 0,000000142 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
2,365 ± 0,007
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1930
parity+

55Cr

Numri i masës55
numri i neutroneve31
relative atomic mass
54,940836637 ± 0,000000245 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3,497 ± 0,003 m
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1952
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

56Cr

Numri i masës56
numri i neutroneve32
relative atomic mass
55,940648977 ± 0,00000062 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5,94 ± 0,1 m
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1960
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

57Cr

Numri i masës57
numri i neutroneve33
relative atomic mass
56,943612112 ± 0,000002 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21,1 ± 1 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1978
parity

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

58Cr

Numri i masës58
numri i neutroneve34
relative atomic mass
57,944184501 ± 0,0000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
7 ± 0,3 s
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1980
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

59Cr

Numri i masës59
numri i neutroneve35
relative atomic mass
58,948345426 ± 0,00000072 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1 050 ± 90 ms
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1980
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

60Cr

Numri i masës60
numri i neutroneve36
relative atomic mass
59,949641656 ± 0,0000012 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
490 ± 10 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1980
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

61Cr

Numri i masës61
numri i neutroneve37
relative atomic mass
60,95437813 ± 0,000002 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
243 ± 9 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1985
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

62Cr

Numri i masës62
numri i neutroneve38
relative atomic mass
61,95614292 ± 0,0000037 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
206 ± 12 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1985
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

63Cr

Numri i masës63
numri i neutroneve39
relative atomic mass
62,961161 ± 0,000078 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
129 ± 2 ms
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1992
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

64Cr

Numri i masës64
numri i neutroneve40
relative atomic mass
63,963886 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
43 ± 1 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1992
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

65Cr

Numri i masës65
numri i neutroneve41
relative atomic mass
64,969608 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
27,5 ± 2,1 ms
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

66Cr

Numri i masës66
numri i neutroneve42
relative atomic mass
65,973011 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
23,8 ± 1,8 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

67Cr

Numri i masës67
numri i neutroneve43
relative atomic mass
66,979313 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

68Cr

Numri i masës68
numri i neutroneve44
relative atomic mass
67,983156 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2009
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

69Cr

Numri i masës69
numri i neutroneve45
relative atomic mass
68,989662 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2013
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

70Cr

Numri i masës70
numri i neutroneve46
relative atomic mass
69,993945 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2013
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Chromium crystals and 1cm3 cube

historia

zbuluesLouis Vauquelin
vendndodhja e zbulimitFrance
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1797
EtimologjiaGreek: chrôma (color).
pronunciationKROH-mi-em (anglisht)

burim

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
102 mg/kg
natural abundance (Oqeani)
0,0003 mg/L
natural abundance (Trupi i njeriut)
0,000003 %
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,3 %
natural abundance (Diell)
0,002 %
Abundance in Universe
0,0015 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.5862
2p3.9248
2s7.0162
3d14.2434
3p12.534
3s11.6322
4s18.8668