Copper

Copper (Cu)

Red-brown transition element. Known by the Romans as 'cuprum.' Extracted and used for thousands of years. Malleable, ductile and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. When in moist conditions, a greenish layer forms on the outside.
Atomic Number29
Atomic Weight63.546
Mass Number63
Group11
Period4
Blockd
Protons29 p+
Neutrons34 n0
Electrons29 e-
NatCopper.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
112.00000000000001 pm
Metallic Radius
118 pm
Ionic Radius
46 pm
Crystal Radius
60 pm
Van der Waals radius
196 pm
Density
8.96 g/cm³
Boiling Point
2,840 K
Melting Point
1,356.6 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 1
Electronegativity
1.9
Electrophilicity
1.5464032976116 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
655.3 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
7.72638 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
304.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
13.01 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
337.4 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
24.44 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.385 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
632.4 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
46.5 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
253 a₀
Oxidation States1, 2, 3, 4
Color
Copper
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
3.61 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIB
IUPAC GroupIB
Glawe Number68
Mendeleev Number71
Pettifor Number72
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00025 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe6×10-6%

Isotopes of Copper

Stable Isotopes
63Cu 65Cu
Unstable Isotopes
52Cu 53Cu 54Cu 55Cu 56Cu 57Cu 58Cu 59Cu 60Cu 61Cu 62Cu 64Cu 66Cu 67Cu 68Cu 69Cu 70Cu 71Cu 72Cu 73Cu 74Cu 75Cu 76Cu 77Cu 78Cu 79Cu 80Cu

History

Copper occurs naturally as native copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record. Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East. It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages. From the Latin word cuprum, from the island of Cyprus

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Name OriginSymbol from Latin: cuprum (island of Cyprus famed for its copper mines).
Cooking acidic food in copper pots can cause toxicity
Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air

Uses

Copper is often used for electrical wiring applications and for household plumbing applications. Copper sulfate is used as a fungicide and as an algicide in rivers, lakes and ponds. It is also used in cookware and cooking utensils. Commercially important alloys such as brass and bronze are made with copper and other metals. Most often used as an electrical conductor. Also used in the manufacture of water pipes. Its alloys are used in jewelry and for coins.

Sources

Pure copper occurs rarely in nature. Usually found in sulfides as in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), coveline (CuS), chalcosine (Cu2S) or oxides like cuprite (Cu2O).