Zinc

Zinc (Zn)

Blue-white metallic element. Occurs in multiple compounds naturally. Five stable isotopes are six radioactive isotopes have been found. Chemically a reactive metal, combines with oxygen and other non-metals, reacts with dilute acids to release hydrogen.
Atomic Number30
Atomic Weight65.38
Mass Number64
Group12
Period4
Blockd
Protons30 p+
Neutrons34 n0
Electrons30 e-
Zinc fragment sublimed and 1cm3 cube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Zn (Zinc) Enhanced Bohr Model of Zn (Zinc) Bohr Model: Zn (Zinc) Orbital Diagram of Zn (Zinc)

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
118 pm
Metallic Radius
121 pm
Ionic Radius
60 pm
Crystal Radius
74 pm
Van der Waals Radius
201 pm
Density
7.134 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
608.6 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
9.394199 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
114.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
7.28 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
130.4 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 2
Valence Electrons2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Oxidation States-2, 0, 1, 2
Electronegativity
1.65
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,180.15 K
Melting Point
692.677 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Slate Gray
Appearancesilver-gray
Refractive Index
1.00205
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000302 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
25.39 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.388 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
17 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000005900000000001 m Ω
Superconducting Point
0.85 K
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.00000000221 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000145 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000158
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
2.66 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
2.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
70 GPa
Shear Modulus
43 GPa
Young Modulus
108 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.25
Speed of Sound
3,700 m/s
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupIIB
IUPAC GroupIIB
Glawe Number74
Mendeleev Number77
Pettifor Number76
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classchalcophile
Other
Gas Basicity
586 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
38.67 ± 0.3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
284 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
1.1
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00055
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Zinc

Stable Isotopes5
Unstable Isotopes28
Radioactive Isotopes27

54Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
53.993879 ± 0.000232 Da
Mass Number54
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.8 ± 0.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2005
Parity+

54Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)87%

55Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
54.984681 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number55
G-Factor
Half Life
19.8 ± 1.3 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2001
Parity-

55Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)91%

56Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
55.972743 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number56
G-Factor
0
Half Life
32.4 ± 0.7 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2001
Parity+

56Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)88%

57Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
56.965056 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number57
G-Factor
Half Life
45.7 ± 0.6 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1976
Parity-

57Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87%

58Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
57.954590296 ± 0.000053678 Da
Mass Number58
G-Factor
0
Half Life
86 ± 1.9 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

58Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.7%

59Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
58.949311886 ± 0.000000814 Da
Mass Number59
G-Factor
Half Life
178.7 ± 1.3 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity-

59Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.1%

60Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
59.941841317 ± 0.000000588 Da
Mass Number60
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.38 ± 0.05 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

60Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

61Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
60.939506964 ± 0.000017068 Da
Mass Number61
G-Factor
Half Life
89.1 ± 0.2 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

61Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

62Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
61.934333359 ± 0.00000066 Da
Mass Number62
G-Factor
0
Half Life
9.193 ± 0.015 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

62Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

63Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
62.93321114 ± 0.000001674 Da
Mass Number63
G-Factor
-0.18762 ± 0.000033333333333333
Half Life
38.47 ± 0.05 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.2 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

63Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

64Zn

Abundance
49.17 ± 0.75
Relative Atomic Mass
63.929141776 ± 0.00000069 Da
Mass Number64
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

64Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
+ (double β+ decay)%

65Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
64.929240534 ± 0.000000693 Da
Mass Number65
G-Factor
0.30736 ± 0.00008
Half Life
243.94 ± 0.04 d
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.019 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1939
Parity-

65Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

66Zn

Abundance
27.73 ± 0.98
Relative Atomic Mass
65.926033639 ± 0.000000798 Da
Mass Number66
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

67Zn

Abundance
4.04 ± 0.16
Relative Atomic Mass
66.927127422 ± 0.00000081 Da
Mass Number67
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.122 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1928
Parity-

68Zn

Abundance
18.45 ± 0.63
Relative Atomic Mass
67.924844232 ± 0.000000835 Da
Mass Number68
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

69Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
68.92655036 ± 0.000000853 Da
Mass Number69
G-Factor
1.114 ± 0.004
Half Life
56.4 ± 0.9 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1937
Parity-

69Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

70Zn

Abundance
0.61 ± 0.1
Relative Atomic Mass
69.925319175 ± 0.000002058 Da
Mass Number70
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1922
Parity+

70Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%

71Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
70.927719578 ± 0.000002849 Da
Mass Number71
G-Factor
1.102 ± 0.002
Half Life
2.4 ± 0.05 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1955
Parity-

71Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

72Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
71.926842806 ± 0.0000023 Da
Mass Number72
G-Factor
0
Half Life
46.5 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1951
Parity+

72Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

73Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
72.92958258 ± 0.000002 Da
Mass Number73
G-Factor
1.1162 ± 0.001
Half Life
24.5 ± 0.2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

73Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

74Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
73.92940726 ± 0.0000027 Da
Mass Number74
G-Factor
0
Half Life
95.6 ± 1.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

74Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

75Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
74.932840244 ± 0.0000021 Da
Mass Number75
G-Factor
-0.22517142857143 ± 0.00025714285714286
Half Life
10.2 ± 0.2 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.16 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

75Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

76Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
75.933114956 ± 0.000001562 Da
Mass Number76
G-Factor
0
Half Life
5.7 ± 0.3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

76Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

77Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
76.936887197 ± 0.000002117 Da
Mass Number77
G-Factor
-0.25905714285714 ± 0.000028571428571429
Half Life
2.08 ± 0.05 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.48 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

77Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

78Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
77.938289204 ± 0.000002086 Da
Mass Number78
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.47 ± 0.15 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

78Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

79Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
78.942638067 ± 0.000002388 Da
Mass Number79
G-Factor
-0.26348888888889 ± 0.00022222222222222
Half Life
746 ± 42 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.4 ± 0.04
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

79Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.7%

80Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
79.944552929 ± 0.000002774 Da
Mass Number80
G-Factor
0
Half Life
562.2 ± 3 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

80Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)1.36%

81Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
80.950402617 ± 0.0000054 Da
Mass Number81
G-Factor
Half Life
299.4 ± 2.1 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1991
Parity+

81Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)23%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

82Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
81.954574097 ± 0.0000033 Da
Mass Number82
G-Factor
0
Half Life
177.9 ± 2.5 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

82Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)69%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

83Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
82.961041 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number83
G-Factor
Half Life
100 ± 3 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1997
Parity+

83Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)71%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

84Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
83.965829 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number84
G-Factor
0
Half Life
54 ± 8 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

84Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)73%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

85Zn

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
84.973054 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number85
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

85Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

86Zn

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
85.978463 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number86
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

86Zn Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Metallic zinc was produced in the 13th century A.D. India by reducing calamine with organic substances such as wool. The metal was rediscovered in Europe by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746. He heated a mixture of calamine ore and carbon in a closed vessel without copper to produce the metal. From the German word Zink, of obscure origin

DiscoverersKnown to the ancients.
Discovery Location
Discovery Year
Etymology (Name Origin)German: zink (German for tin).
PronunciationZINK (English)
Zinc is not considered to be particularly toxic
Zinc is referred to in nonscientific contexts as spelter

Uses

Because of its corrosion resistance, zinc is often plated to other metals in a process called galvanization. Zinc is an essential trace element for animals and plants. Large quantities of zinc are used to produce die castings, which are used extensively by the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries. Used to coat other metal (galvanizing) to protect them from rusting. Also used in alloys such as brass, bronze, nickel. Also in solder, cosmetics and pigments.

Sources

Found in the minerals zinc blende (sphalerite) (ZnS), calamine, franklinite, smithsonite (ZnCO3), willemite, and zincite (ZnO).

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.0049 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.0033 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.018 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00003 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6755
2p3.902
2s8.172
3d16.1217
3p14.6307
3s13.7808
4s24.0348