Dysprosium

Dysprosium (Dy)

Metallic with a bright silvery-white lustre. Dysprosium belongs to the lanthanoids. It is relatively stable in air at room temperatures, it will however dissolve in mineral acids, evolving hydrogen. It is found in from rare-earth minerals. There are seven natural isotopes of dysprosium, and eight radioisotopes, Dy-154 being the most stable with a half-life of 3*10^6 years. Dysprosium is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear fission reactions, and in compact disks. It was discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886 in France. Its name comes from the Greek word dysprositos, which means hard to obtain.
Atomic Number66
Atomic Weight162.5
Mass Number164
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons66 p+
Neutrons98 n0
Electrons66 e-
Dysprosium1.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Dy (Dysprosium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Dy (Dysprosium) Bohr Model: Dy (Dysprosium) Orbital Diagram of Dy (Dysprosium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
167 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
107 pm
Crystal Radius
121 pm
Van der Waals Radius
231 pm
Density
8.55 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
5.93905 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
291 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
290.4 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f10 6s2
Oxidation States0, 2, 3, 4
Electronegativity
1.22
Electrophilicity
0.8854697492974827 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
2,840.15 K
Melting Point
1,685.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
10.7 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
0.00001 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
28.16 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.173 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1.1 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000091 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000545 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000885625 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.046603
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
87 K
Neel Point
178 K
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.59 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
41 GPa
Shear Modulus
25 GPa
Young Modulus
61 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.25
Speed of Sound
2,710 m/s
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number24
Mendeleev Number31
Pettifor Number25
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
163 ± 15 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
950
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.2
Quantum Numbers5I8
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Dysprosium

Stable Isotopes7
Unstable Isotopes32
Radioactive Isotopes32

138Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
137.9625 ± 0.00054 Da
Mass Number138
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

138Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

139Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
138.959527 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number139
G-Factor
Half Life
600 ± 200 ms
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

139Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)11%

140Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
139.95402 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number140
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2002
Parity+

140Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

141Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
140.95128 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number141
G-Factor
Half Life
900 ± 140 ms
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1984
Parity-

141Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

142Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
141.946194 ± 0.000782 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.3 ± 0.3 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

142Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)90%
ϵ (electron capture)10%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.06%

143Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
142.943994332 ± 0.000014 Da
Mass Number143
G-Factor
Half Life
5.6 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

143Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

144Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
143.939269512 ± 0.0000077 Da
Mass Number144
G-Factor
0
Half Life
9.1 ± 0.4 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1986
Parity+

144Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

145Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
144.937473992 ± 0.000007 Da
Mass Number145
G-Factor
Half Life
9.5 ± 1 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

145Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

146Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
145.932844526 ± 0.000007187 Da
Mass Number146
G-Factor
0
Half Life
33.2 ± 0.7 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

146Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

147Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
146.931082712 ± 0.0000095 Da
Mass Number147
G-Factor
-1.83 ± 0.018
Half Life
67 ± 7 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1975
Parity+

147Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.05%

148Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
147.927149944 ± 0.000009365 Da
Mass Number148
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.3 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1974
Parity+

148Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

149Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
148.927327516 ± 0.000009858 Da
Mass Number149
G-Factor
-0.034 ± 0.002
Half Life
4.2 ± 0.14 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.62 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1958
Parity-

149Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

150Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
149.925593068 ± 0.000004636 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
0
Half Life
7.17 ± 0.05 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1959
Parity+

150Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)66.4%
α (α emission)33.6%

151Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
150.926191279 ± 0.000003486 Da
Mass Number151
G-Factor
-0.27 ± 0.002
Half Life
17.9 ± 0.3 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.3 ± 0.05
Discovery Year1959
Parity-

151Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)94.4%
α (α emission)5.6%

152Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
151.924725274 ± 0.00000493 Da
Mass Number152
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.38 ± 0.02 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

152Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)99.9%
α (α emission)0.1%

153Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
152.925771729 ± 0.000004295 Da
Mass Number153
G-Factor
-0.20342857142857 ± 0.0017142857142857
Half Life
6.4 ± 0.1 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.15 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1958
Parity-

153Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.9906%
α (α emission)0.0094%

154Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
153.92442892 ± 0.000007977 Da
Mass Number154
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3 ± 1.5 My
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

154Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)100%
+ (double β+ decay)%

155Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
154.925758049 ± 0.000010354 Da
Mass Number155
G-Factor
-0.22466666666667 ± 0.002
Half Life
9.9 ± 0.2 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.96 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1958
Parity-

155Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

156Dy

Abundance
0.056 ± 0.003
Relative Atomic Mass
155.924283593 ± 0.00000106 Da
Mass Number156
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1948
Parity+

156Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
+ (double β+ decay)%

157Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
156.925469555 ± 0.000005532 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
-0.20066666666667 ± 0.0013333333333333
Half Life
8.14 ± 0.04 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.29 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1953
Parity-

157Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

158Dy

Abundance
0.095 ± 0.003
Relative Atomic Mass
157.924414817 ± 0.000002509 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

158Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
+ (double β+ decay)%

159Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.925745938 ± 0.000001544 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
-0.236 ± 0.002
Half Life
144.4 ± 0.2 d
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.37 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1951
Parity-

159Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

160Dy

Abundance
2.329 ± 0.018
Relative Atomic Mass
159.925203578 ± 0.000000751 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

161Dy

Abundance
18.889 ± 0.042
Relative Atomic Mass
160.926939425 ± 0.000000748 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
-0.1916 ± 0.0012
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.51 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

162Dy

Abundance
25.475 ± 0.036
Relative Atomic Mass
161.926804507 ± 0.000000746 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

163Dy

Abundance
24.896 ± 0.042
Relative Atomic Mass
162.928737221 ± 0.000000744 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
0.2684 ± 0.0016
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.65 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1934
Parity-

164Dy

Abundance
28.26 ± 0.054
Relative Atomic Mass
163.929180819 ± 0.000000746 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

165Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.931709402 ± 0.000000748 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
-0.148 ± 0.0017142857142857
Half Life
2.332 ± 0.004 h
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.48 ± 0.07
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

165Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

166Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
165.93281281 ± 0.000000862 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0
Half Life
81.6 ± 0.1 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1949
Parity+

166Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

167Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
166.935682415 ± 0.0000043 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
Half Life
6.2 ± 0.08 m
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1960
Parity-

167Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

168Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
167.937134977 ± 0.000150303 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0
Half Life
8.7 ± 0.3 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

168Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

169Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.940315231 ± 0.000322781 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
Half Life
39 ± 8 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1990
Parity

169Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

170Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
169.94234 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
54.9 ± 8 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2010
Parity+

170Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

171Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.946312 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
Half Life
4.07 ± 0.4 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

171Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

172Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.948728 ± 0.000322 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.4 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

172Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

173Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.953043 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
Half Life
1.43 ± 0.2 s
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

173Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

174Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.955845 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

174Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

175Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.960569 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

175Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

176Dy

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
175.963918 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

176Dy Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, while working with holmium oxide, separated dysprosium oxide from it in Paris in 1886. His procedure for isolating the dysprosium involved dissolving dysprosium oxide in acid, then adding ammonia to precipitate the hydroxide. It was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. From the Greek word dysprositos, meaning hard to get at

DiscoverersPaul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1886
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: dysprositos (hard to get at).
Pronunciationdis-PRO-si-em (English)
Dysprosium is considered to be moderately toxic
Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of 7 isotopes

Uses

Dysprosium oxide-nickel cermets are used in neutron-absorbing control rods in nuclear reactors. Dysprosium is used in data storage applications such as compact discs and hard discs. It is also used in dosimeters for measuring ionizing radiation. Dysprosium iodide and dysprosium bromide are used in high intensity metal-halide lamps. Its uses are limited to the experimental and esoteric.

Sources

Usually found with erbium, holmium and other rare earths in some minerals such as monazite sand, which is often 50% rare earth by weight.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
5.2 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00000091 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000027 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000002 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.2914
2p4.3204
2s17.2906
3d13.6701
3p20.1195
3s20.6067
4d34.982
4f39.464
4p32.174
4s31.408
5p48.873
5s46.696
6s57.6564