Erbium

Erbium (Er)

Soft silvery metallic element which belongs to the lanthanoids. Six natural isotopes that are stable. Twelve artificial isotopes are known. Used in nuclear technology as a neutron absorber. It is being investigated for other possible uses. Discovered by Carl G. Mosander in 1843.
Atomic Number68
Atomic Weight167.259
Mass Number166
Group
Period6
Blockf
Protons68 p+
Neutrons98 n0
Electrons68 e-
Erbium.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Er (Erbium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Er (Erbium) Bohr Model: Er (Erbium) Orbital Diagram of Er (Erbium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
175 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
165 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
89 pm
Crystal Radius
103 pm
Van der Waals Radius
229 pm
Density
9.07 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
Heat of Vaporization
317 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
316.4 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Valence Electrons3
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Oxidation States0, 2, 3
Electronegativity
1.24
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
3,141.15 K
Melting Point
1,802.15 K
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.0000122 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
28.12 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.168 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
1.2 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000086 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.00000377 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.000000630566 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0341788
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
32 K
Neel Point
82 K
Structure
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
3.56 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
44 GPa
Shear Modulus
28 GPa
Young Modulus
70 GPa
Poisson Ratio
0.24
Speed of Sound
2,830 m/s
Classification
CategoryLanthanides, Lanthanides
CAS Group
IUPAC Group
Glawe Number22
Mendeleev Number35
Pettifor Number23
Geochemical Classrare earth & related
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
150 ± 10 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
165
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.036
Quantum Numbers3H6
Space Group194 (P63/mmc)

Isotopes of Erbium

Stable Isotopes6
Unstable Isotopes33
Radioactive Isotopes33

142Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
141.970016 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number142
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

142Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

143Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
142.966548 ± 0.000429 Da
Mass Number143
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2005
Parity-

143Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

144Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
143.9607 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number144
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2003
Parity+

144Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)%

145Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
144.957874 ± 0.000215 Da
Mass Number145
G-Factor
Half Life
900 ± 200 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

145Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

146Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
145.952418357 ± 0.000007197 Da
Mass Number146
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1.7 ± 0.6 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1993
Parity+

146Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

147Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
146.949964456 ± 0.000041 Da
Mass Number147
G-Factor
Half Life
3.2 ± 1.2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1992
Parity+

147Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)%

148Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
147.944735026 ± 0.000011 Da
Mass Number148
G-Factor
0
Half Life
4.6 ± 0.2 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

148Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.15%

149Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
148.942306 ± 0.00003 Da
Mass Number149
G-Factor
Half Life
4 ± 2 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1984
Parity+

149Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)7%

150Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
149.937915524 ± 0.000018458 Da
Mass Number150
G-Factor
0
Half Life
18.5 ± 0.7 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1982
Parity+

150Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

151Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
150.937448567 ± 0.000017681 Da
Mass Number151
G-Factor
Half Life
23.5 ± 2 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity-

151Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

152Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
151.935050347 ± 0.000009478 Da
Mass Number152
G-Factor
0
Half Life
10.3 ± 0.1 s
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

152Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)90%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)10%

153Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
152.93508635 ± 0.000009967 Da
Mass Number153
G-Factor
-0.26628571428571 ± 0.002
Half Life
37.1 ± 0.2 s
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.42 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

153Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)53%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)47%

154Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
153.932790799 ± 0.000005325 Da
Mass Number154
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.73 ± 0.09 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity+

154Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)0.47%

155Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
154.93321571 ± 0.00000652 Da
Mass Number155
G-Factor
-0.19028571428571 ± 0.0014285714285714
Half Life
5.3 ± 0.3 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.27 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1969
Parity-

155Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)99.978%
α (α emission)0.022%

156Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
155.931065926 ± 0.00002644 Da
Mass Number156
G-Factor
0
Half Life
19.5 ± 1 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1967
Parity+

156Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
α (α emission)1.2%

157Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
156.931922652 ± 0.000028454 Da
Mass Number157
G-Factor
-0.274 ± 0.002
Half Life
18.65 ± 0.1 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.92 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1966
Parity-

157Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

158Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
157.929893474 ± 0.000027074 Da
Mass Number158
G-Factor
0
Half Life
2.29 ± 0.06 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1961
Parity+

158Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

159Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
158.93069079 ± 0.00000391 Da
Mass Number159
G-Factor
-0.202 ± 0.0013333333333333
Half Life
36 ± 1 m
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.17 ± 0.01
Discovery Year1962
Parity-

159Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

160Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
159.929077193 ± 0.000026029 Da
Mass Number160
G-Factor
0
Half Life
28.58 ± 0.09 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

160Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

161Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
160.93000353 ± 0.000009419 Da
Mass Number161
G-Factor
-0.24266666666667 ± 0.002
Half Life
3.21 ± 0.03 h
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
1.363 ± 0.008
Discovery Year1954
Parity-

161Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

162Er

Abundance
0.139 ± 0.005
Relative Atomic Mass
161.928787299 ± 0.000000811 Da
Mass Number162
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

162Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
+ (double β+ decay)%

163Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
162.930039908 ± 0.000004967 Da
Mass Number163
G-Factor
0.2224 ± 0.0016
Half Life
75 ± 0.4 m
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.56 ± 0.02
Discovery Year1953
Parity-

163Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

164Er

Abundance
1.601 ± 0.003
Relative Atomic Mass
163.929207739 ± 0.000000755 Da
Mass Number164
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1938
Parity+

164Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
α (α emission)%
+ (double β+ decay)%

165Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
164.930733482 ± 0.000000985 Da
Mass Number165
G-Factor
0.2564 ± 0.0016
Half Life
10.36 ± 0.04 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.71 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1950
Parity-

165Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

166Er

Abundance
33.503 ± 0.036
Relative Atomic Mass
165.930301067 ± 0.000000358 Da
Mass Number166
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

167Er

Abundance
22.869 ± 0.009
Relative Atomic Mass
166.932056192 ± 0.000000306 Da
Mass Number167
G-Factor
-0.16065714285714 ± 0.00011428571428571
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
3.57 ± 0.03
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

168Er

Abundance
26.978 ± 0.018
Relative Atomic Mass
167.932378282 ± 0.00000028 Da
Mass Number168
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

169Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
168.934598444 ± 0.000000326 Da
Mass Number169
G-Factor
0.9656 ± 0.0008
Half Life
9.392 ± 0.018 d
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1956
Parity-

169Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

170Er

Abundance
14.91 ± 0.036
Relative Atomic Mass
169.935471933 ± 0.000001488 Da
Mass Number170
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

170Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
(double β decay)%
α (α emission)%

171Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
170.938037372 ± 0.000001511 Da
Mass Number171
G-Factor
0.2628 ± 0.004
Half Life
7.516 ± 0.002 h
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
2.86 ± 0.09
Discovery Year1938
Parity-

171Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

172Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
171.939363461 ± 0.000004253 Da
Mass Number172
G-Factor
0
Half Life
49.3 ± 0.5 h
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1956
Parity+

172Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

173Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
172.9424 ± 0.00021 Da
Mass Number173
G-Factor
Half Life
1.434 ± 0.017 m
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

173Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

174Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
173.94423 ± 0.00032 Da
Mass Number174
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.2 ± 0.2 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

174Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

175Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
174.94777 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number175
G-Factor
Half Life
1.2 ± 0.3 m
Spin9/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity+

175Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

176Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
175.94994 ± 0.00043 Da
Mass Number176
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

176Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

177Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
176.95399 ± 0.00054 Da
Mass Number177
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

177Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

178Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
177.956779 ± 0.00064 Da
Mass Number178
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2012
Parity+

178Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%

179Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
178.961267 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number179
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2018
Parity-

179Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

180Er

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
179.96438 ± 0.000537 Da
Mass Number180
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2018
Parity+

180Er Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Erbium was discovered in 1843 by Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander, who detected it as an impurity in yttria. Using ammonium hydroxide he precipitated fractions of different basicity from yttria. In these fractions he found that the fraction that contained the pink color was erbium. Erbium was named after Ytterby, a town in Sweden

DiscoverersCarl Mosander
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1843
Etymology (Name Origin)Named after the Swedish town, Ytterby.
PronunciationUR-bi-em (English)
Erbium is considered to be moderately toxic
The highest concentration of erbium in humans is in the bones

Uses

Erbium is used in photographic filters to absorb infrared light. Erbium oxide gives a pink color and has been used as a colorant in glasses and porcelain enamel glazes. It is also used in nuclear technology in neutron-absorbing control rods. Erbium is used in alloys especially with vanadium to decrease the hardness of metals. Erbium oxide is used in ceramics to obtain a pink glaze. Also a few uses in the nuclear industry and as an alloying agent for other exotic metals. For example, it increases the malleability of vanadium.

Sources

Found with other heavier rare earths in xenotime and euxerite.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
3.5 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00000087 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
0.000018 %
Abundance in Sun
0.0000001 %
Abundance in Universe
0.0000002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s1.3263
2p4.346
2s17.7984
3d13.6397
3p20.3891
3s20.9231
4d35.7288
4f40.0216
4p32.8908
4s31.768
5p50.528
5s48.282
6s59.5238