Fluorine

Fluorine (F)

Fluorine is the 9th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of F and atomic number of 9. It has an atomic weight of 18.99840 and a mass number of 19. Fluorine has nine protons and ten neutrons in its nucleus, and nine electrons in two shells. It is located in group seventeen, period two and block p of the periodic table. A poisonous pale yellow gaseous element belonging to group 17 of the periodic table (The halogens). It is the most chemically reactive and electronegative element. It is highly dangerous, causing severe chemical burns on contact with flesh. Fluorine was identified by Scheele in 1771 and first isolated by Moissan in 1886.
Atomic Number9
Atomic Weight18.998403163
Mass Number19
Group17
Period2
Blockp
Protons9 p+
Neutrons10 n0
Electrons9 e-
Animated Bohr Model of F (Fluorine)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
50 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
64 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
128.5 pm
Crystal Radius
114.5 pm
Van der Waals Radius
147 pm
Density
0.001553 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Fluorine0102030405060708090100110120130140150pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
340.1 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
3.4011897 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
17.42282 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of F (Fluorine)
Heat of Vaporization
6.54 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
0.51 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
79.335 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 7
Bohr Model: F (Fluorine)
Valence Electrons7
Lewis Structure: F (Fluorine)
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p5
1s2 2s2 2p5
Enhanced Bohr Model of F (Fluorine)
Orbital Diagram of F (Fluorine)
Oxidation States-1, 0
Electronegativity
3.98
Electrophilicity Index
3.865807423136221 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseGas
Gas PhaseDiatomic
Boiling Point
85.04 K
Melting Point
53.48 K
Critical Pressure
5.1724 MPa
Critical Temperature
144.41 K
Triple Point
53.48 K
90 kPa
Visual

Fluorine is a Colorless. F has a CPK of #daa520, Jmol of #90e050, and MOLCAS GV of #7fd03b. The Refractive Index of Element 9 is 1.000195.

Color
Colorless
Appearance
Refractive Index
1.000195
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
0.028 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
31.304 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.824 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)7/5
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Type
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Fluorine is MCL. The lattice angles of F are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureBase Centered Monoclinic (MCL)
Lattice Constant
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
Classification

The CAS Group of Fluorine is VIIB. The IUPAC Group of F is VIIA. The Glawe Number of Element 9 is 102. The Mendeleev Number of Fluorine (F) is 106. The Pettifor Number of Fluorine is 102. The Geochemical Class of F is semi-volatile. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 9 is litophile.

CategoryHalogens, Halogens
CAS GroupVIIB
IUPAC GroupVIIA
Glawe Number102
Mendeleev Number106
Pettifor Number102
Geochemical Classsemi-volatile
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Gas Basicity of Fluorine is 315.1 kJ/mol. The Dipole Polarizability of F is 3.74 plus or minus 0.08 a₀. Element 9 has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 9.52 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 10.2 a₀. The Allotropes of Fluorine (F) is Difluorine. The Neutron Cross Section of Fluorine is 0.0096. The Neutron Mass Absorption of F is 2.0E-5. The Quantum Numbers of Element 9 is 2P3/2. The Space Group of Fluorine (F) is 15 (C12/c1).

Gas Basicity
315.1 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
3.74 ± 0.08 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
9.52 a₀
AllotropesDifluorine
Neutron Cross Section
0.0096
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00002
Quantum Numbers2P3/2
Space Group15 (C12/c1)

Isotopes of Fluorine

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes18
Natural Isotopes1

13F

Mass Number13
Neutron Number4
Relative Atomic Mass
13.045121 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

14F

Mass Number14
Neutron Number5
Relative Atomic Mass
14.034315196 ± 0.000044142 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
500 ± 60 ys
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2010
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

15F

Mass Number15
Neutron Number6
Relative Atomic Mass
15.017785139 ± 0.000015029 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.1 ± 0.3 zs
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1978
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

16F

Mass Number16
Neutron Number7
Relative Atomic Mass
16.011460278 ± 0.000005758 Da
G-Factor
0
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
21 ± 5 zs
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1964
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

17F

Mass Number17
Neutron Number8
Relative Atomic Mass
17.002095237 ± 0.000000266 Da
G-Factor
1.88852 ± 0.00012
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
64.37 ± 0.027 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.076 ± 0.004
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

18F

Mass Number18
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
18.000937324 ± 0.000000497 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
109.734 ± 0.008 m
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1937
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

19F

Mass Number19
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
18.99840316207 ± 0.00000000088 Da
G-Factor
5.256642 ± 0.000008
Abundance
100
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1920
Parity+

20F

Mass Number20
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
19.999981252 ± 0.000000031 Da
G-Factor
1.046675 ± 0.000045
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
11.0062 ± 0.008 s
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.056 ± 0.004
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

21F

Mass Number21
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
20.999948893 ± 0.000001932 Da
G-Factor
1.56776 ± 0.00048
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.158 ± 0.02 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.011 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1955
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

22F

Mass Number22
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
22.002998812 ± 0.00001331 Da
G-Factor
0.6736 ± 0.0001
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
4.23 ± 0.04 s
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
0.003 ± 0.002
Discovery Year1965
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)11%

23F

Mass Number23
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
23.003526875 ± 0.00003577 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.23 ± 0.14 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)14%

24F

Mass Number24
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
24.00809937 ± 0.000104853 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
384 ± 16 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)5.9%

25F

Mass Number25
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
25.012167727 ± 0.000103535 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
80 ± 9 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)23.1%
2n (2-neutron emission)

26F

Mass Number26
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
26.020048065 ± 0.000114898 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.2 ± 0.9 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)13.5%
2n (2-neutron emission)

27F

Mass Number27
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
27.026981897 ± 0.000129037 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5 ± 0.2 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1981
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)77%
2n (2-neutron emission)

28F

Mass Number28
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
28.035860448 ± 0.000129198 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
46 zs
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2012
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)100%

29F

Mass Number29
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
29.043103 ± 0.000564 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.5 ± 0.3 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1989
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)60%
2n (2-neutron emission)

30F

Mass Number30
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
30.052561 ± 0.000537 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)

31F

Mass Number31
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
31.061023 ± 0.000574 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1999
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Liquid fluorine tighter crop

History

In 1529, Georigius Agricola described the use of fluorspar as a flux. In 1670 Heinrich Schwandhard found that glass was etched when exposed to fluorspar treated with acid. In 1810, French scientist Andre-Marie Ampere proposed that fluoric acid was a compound of hydrogen with a new element. The element was finally isolated in 1886 by Henri Moissan. From the Latin and French fluere, flow or flux

DiscoverersHenri Moissan
Discovery LocationFrance
Discovery Year1886
Etymology (Name Origin)Latin: fluere (flow).
PronunciationFLU-eh-reen (English)
Fluorine is highly toxic and corrosive
Fluorine reacts violently with water to produce oxygen

Uses

Compounds of fluorine, including sodium fluoride, are used in toothpaste and in drinking water to prevent dental cavities. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) now serve as replacements for CFC refrigerants. Fluorine and its compounds are used in processing nuclear fuel. Used in refrigerants and other fluorocarbons. Also in toothpaste as sodium fluoride (NaF) and stannous fluoride (SnF2); also in Teflon.

Sources

Found in the minerals fluorite (CaF2) and cryolite(Na3AlF6). Electrolysis of hydrofluoric acid (HF) or potassium acid fluoride (KHF2) is the only practical method of commercial production.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
585 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
1.3 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.0037 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.0087 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.00005 %
Abundance in Universe
0.00004 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3499
2p3.9
2s3.8724

Also Known As

  • F
  • element 9
  • 9F

Translations

  • Italianfluoro
  • Norwegian Bokmålfluor
  • Frenchfluor
  • GermanFluor
  • Russianфтор
  • Spanishflúor
  • Dutchfluor
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Hebrewפלואור
  • Afrikaansfluoor
  • Amharicፍሎሪን
  • AragoneseFluor
  • Arabicفلور
  • AsturianFlúor
  • AzerbaijaniFlüor
  • Belarusianфтор
  • Bulgarianфлуор
  • Banglaফ্লোরিন
  • BretonFluor
  • Bosnianfluor
  • Catalanfluor
  • CherokeeᏩᎶᏫᏂ
  • Central Kurdishفلۆراین
  • CorsicanFluoru
  • Czechfluor
  • ChuvashФтор
  • WelshFflworin
  • Danishfluor
  • Greekφθόριο
  • Esperantofluoro
  • Estonianfluor
  • Basquefluor
  • Persianفلوئور
  • Finnishfluori
  • Northern FrisianFluor
  • FriulianFluôr
  • Western FrisianFluor
  • IrishFluairín
  • Galicianflúor
  • Manxfluoreen
  • Hakka ChineseFuk
  • HawaiianFluorine
  • Hindiफ्लोरीन
  • Fiji HindiFluorine
  • CroatianFluor
  • Haitian CreoleFliyò
  • Hungarianfluor
  • Armenianֆտոր
  • Interlinguafluor
  • Indonesianfluorin
  • Idofluoro
  • Icelandicflúor
  • Japaneseフッ素
  • Lojbanli'orkliru
  • Georgianფთორი
  • KazakhФтор
  • Kannadaಫ್ಲೂರೀನ್
  • Korean플루오린
  • KurdishFluor
  • KomiФтор
  • Latinfluorum
  • LuxembourgishFluor
  • LigurianFluö
  • LingalaFolina
  • LithuanianFluoras
  • Latvianfluors
  • Māorihau kōwhai
  • Macedonianфлуор
  • Malayalamഫ്ലൂറിൻ
  • Mongolianфтор
  • Marathiफ्लोरिन
  • Western MariФтор
  • Malayfluorin
  • Burmeseဖလိုရင်း
  • Low GermanFluor
  • Nepaliफ्लोरिन
  • Norwegian Nynorskfluor
  • Novialfluore
  • OccitanFluor
  • Punjabiਫਲੋਰੀਨ
  • Polishfluor
  • Western Panjabiفلورین
  • Portugueseflúor
  • QuechuaFlur
  • Romanianfluor
  • Sicilianfluoru
  • Serbo-CroatianFluor
  • Sinhalaෆ්ලූවොරින්
  • Slovakfluór
  • Slovenianfluor
  • AlbanianFluori
  • Serbianфлуор
  • Saterland FrisianFluor
  • Swedishfluor
  • SwahiliFlorini
  • Tamilபுளோரின்
  • Teluguఫ్లోరిన్
  • TajikФтор
  • Thaiฟลูออรีน
  • TagalogPlurina
  • TurkishFlor
  • TatarФтор
  • Uyghurفىتور
  • Ukrainianфтор
  • UzbekFtor
  • VepsFtor
  • Vietnamesefluor
  • WarayFluor
  • KalmykФлүр
  • Yiddishפלואר
  • YorubaFluorínì
  • Chinese
  • CebuanoFluor
  • Odiaଫ୍ଲୋରିନ
  • PiedmonteseFluòr
  • Gujaratiફ્લોરિન
  • German (Switzerland)Fluor
  • English (Canada)Fluorine
  • English (United Kingdom)fluorine
  • Portuguese (Brazil)flúor
  • Cantonese
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Scotsfluorine
  • Newariफ्लोरिन
  • Min Nan ChineseHut-sò͘
  • ErzyaФтор
  • SomaliFoloriin
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)фтор
  • SilesianFluor
  • AromanianFluoru
  • LimburgishFluor
  • KyrgyzФтор
  • cdoHók
  • FaroeseFluor
  • Scottish GaelicFluarain
  • Sanskritफ्लोरिन
  • Lombardfluoro
  • Maltesefluworin
  • Gan Chinese
  • Paliफ्लोरिन
  • azbفلور
  • Urduفلورین
  • Bhojpuriफ्लोरीन
  • Tibetanབཞུར་རླུང་།
  • SundaneseFluor
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Lingua Franca Novafluor
  • Wu Chinese
  • Khmerភ្លុយអរ
  • oloFtor
  • kbpFʊlʊyɔrɩ
  • hywՓղուոր
  • Santaliᱯᱷᱞᱚᱨᱤᱱ
  • ExtremaduranFlúol
  • WalloonFluwôr
  • Moroccan Arabicفليور
  • Bashkirфтор
  • Egyptian Arabicفلور
  • Pashtoفلورين
  • BikolPlurina
  • CornishFluorin
  • Manipuriꯐ꯭ꯂꯣꯔꯤꯟ
  • BalineseFluorin
  • Inari Samifluori
  • Malay (Arabic)فلورين
  • JavaneseFlorin
  • Gandafololiini
  • blkဖလိုရဉ်း
  • Shonaflourine
  • ZuluUFusihwe
  • English (United States)fluorine