Neon

Neon (Ne)

Colourless gaseous element of group 18 on the periodic table (noble gases). Neon occurs in the atmosphere, and comprises 0.0018% of the volume of the atmosphere. It has a distinct reddish glow when used in discharge tubes and neon based lamps. It forms almost no chemical compounds. Neon was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsey and M.W. Travers.
Atomic Number10
Atomic Weight20.1797
Mass Number20
Group18
Period2
Blockp
Protons10 p+
Neutrons10 n0
Electrons10 e-
NeTube.jpg Animated Bohr Model of Ne (Neon) Enhanced Bohr Model of Ne (Neon) Bohr Model: Ne (Neon) Orbital Diagram of Ne (Neon)

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
67 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
Crystal Radius
Van der Waals Radius
154 pm
Density
0.000825 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
198.8 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Energy
21.56454 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
1.74 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8
Valence Electrons0
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p6
Oxidation States
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
Phases
PhaseGas
Gas PhaseMonoatomic
Boiling Point
27.104 K
Melting Point
24.56 K
Critical Pressure
2.6786 MPa
Critical Temperature
44.492 K
Triple Point
24.5561 K
43.37 kPa
Visual
Color
Colorless
Appearancecolorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
Refractive Index
1.000067
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
Molar Heat Capacity
20.786 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)5/3
Electrical Properties
Type
Electrical Conductivity
Electrical Resistivity
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typediamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
-0.0000000041 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
-0.0000000000827 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
-0.00000000369
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
4.43 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
Bulk Modulus
Shear Modulus
Young Modulus
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
936 m/s
Classification
CategoryNoble gases, Noble gases
CAS GroupVIII
IUPAC GroupVIIIA
Glawe Number2
Mendeleev Number113
Pettifor Number2
Geochemical Classvolatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Other
Gas Basicity
174.4 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
2.6611 ± 0.00003 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
6.2 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.04
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.00059
Quantum Numbers1S0
Space Group225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Neon

Stable Isotopes3
Unstable Isotopes17
Radioactive Isotopes16

15Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
15.043172977 ± 0.000071588 Da
Mass Number15
G-Factor
Half Life
770 ± 300 ys
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2014
Parity-

15Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

16Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
16.02575086 ± 0.000021986 Da
Mass Number16
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

16Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
2p (2-proton emission)100%

17Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
17.017713962 ± 0.00000038 Da
Mass Number17
G-Factor
1.5746 ± 0.0028
Half Life
109.2 ± 0.6 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1963
Parity-

17Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)94.4%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)3.51%
B+pA0.014%

18Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
18.005708696 ± 0.00000039 Da
Mass Number18
G-Factor
0
Half Life
1,664.2 ± 0.47 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1954
Parity+

18Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

19Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
19.001880906 ± 0.000000171 Da
Mass Number19
G-Factor
-3.7703 ± 0.00014
Half Life
17.2569 ± 0.0019 s
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1939
Parity+

19Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

20Ne

Abundance
90.48 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
19.99244017525 ± 0.00000000165 Da
Mass Number20
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1913
Parity+

21Ne

Abundance
0.27 ± 0.01
Relative Atomic Mass
20.993846685 ± 0.000000041 Da
Mass Number21
G-Factor
-0.44113333333333 ± 0.00002
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1928
Parity+

22Ne

Abundance
9.25 ± 0.03
Relative Atomic Mass
21.991385113 ± 0.000000018 Da
Mass Number22
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1913
Parity+

23Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
22.994466905 ± 0.000000112 Da
Mass Number23
G-Factor
-0.43176 ± 0.0004
Half Life
37.15 ± 0.03 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.145 ± 0.013
Discovery Year1936
Parity+

23Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

24Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
23.993610649 ± 0.00000055 Da
Mass Number24
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.38 ± 0.02 m
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1956
Parity+

24Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

25Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
24.997814797 ± 0.000031181 Da
Mass Number25
G-Factor
-2.012 ± 0.001
Half Life
602 ± 8 ms
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

25Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

26Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
26.000516496 ± 0.000019784 Da
Mass Number26
G-Factor
0
Half Life
197 ± 2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1970
Parity+

26Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.13%

27Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
27.007569462 ± 0.000097445 Da
Mass Number27
G-Factor
Half Life
30.9 ± 1.1 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1977
Parity+

27Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)2%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

28Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
28.012130767 ± 0.000135339 Da
Mass Number28
G-Factor
0
Half Life
18.8 ± 0.2 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1979
Parity+

28Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12%
2n (2-neutron emission)3.7%

29Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
29.019753 ± 0.0001605 Da
Mass Number29
G-Factor
Half Life
14.7 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1985
Parity-

29Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28%
2n (2-neutron emission)4%

30Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
30.024992235 ± 0.000271875 Da
Mass Number30
G-Factor
0
Half Life
7.22 ± 0.18 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1985
Parity+

30Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)13%
2n (2-neutron emission)8.9%

31Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
31.033474816 ± 0.000285772 Da
Mass Number31
G-Factor
Half Life
3.4 ± 0.8 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1996
Parity-

31Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

32Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
32.03972 ± 0.00054 Da
Mass Number32
G-Factor
0
Half Life
3.5 ± 0.9 ms
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year1990
Parity+

32Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

33Ne

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
33.049523 ± 0.000644 Da
Mass Number33
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin7/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity-

33Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

34Ne

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
34.056728 ± 0.000551 Da
Mass Number34
G-Factor
0
Half Life
Spin0
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2002
Parity+

34Ne Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%

History

Neon was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in London. It was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of air until it became a liquid, then warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. After 1902, Georges Claude's company, Air Liquide, was producing industrial quantities of neon as a byproduct of his air liquefaction business. From the Greek word neos, new

DiscoverersSir William Ramsey, M.W. Travers
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1898
Etymology (Name Origin)Greek: neos (new).
PronunciationNEE-on (English)
Neon is not known to be toxic
In a vacuum discharge tube, neon glows reddish orange

Uses

Neon is often used in brightly lit advertising signs. It is also used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Liquid neon is used as a cryogenic refrigerant. Primarily for lighting.

Sources

Obtained from production of liquid air as a byproduct of producing liquid oxygen and nitrogen.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.005 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00012 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
0.1 %
Abundance in Universe
0.13 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3579
2p4.2416
2s4.2416