Gallju[m]

Gallju[m] (Ga)

chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31
Atomic Number31
Atomic Weight69.723
mass number69
Group13
Period4
Blockp
proton31 p+
neutron38 n0
elettron31 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ga (Gallju[m])

Physical Property

Atomic Radius
130 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
ionic radius
47 pm
Crystal Radius
61 pm
Van der Waals radius
187 pm
densità
5.91 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Gallju[m]0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

enerġija
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
5.9993018 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ga (Gallju[m])
enthalpy of vaporization
270.3 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
5.59 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
271.96 kJ/mol
elettron
electron shell2, 8, 18, 3
Bohr model: Ga (Gallju[m])
valence electron3
Lewis structure: Ga (Gallju[m])
electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Enhanced Bohr model of Ga (Gallju[m])
Orbital Diagram of Ga (Gallju[m])
oxidation number-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
electronegativity
1.81
Electrophilicity Index
0.927762651403701 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2,502.15 K
Melting Point
302.9146 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
302.9166 K
appearance
kulur
Silver
appearancesilver-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
28.1 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0.00012 1/K
molar heat capacity
26.03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.373 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
7.1 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0.00000014 m Ω
superconductivity
1.083 K
magnetism
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0.000000003 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0.000000000209 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0.0000177
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
lattice constant
4.51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
1.5 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
speed of sound
2,740 m/s
classification
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number79
Mendeleev Number83
Pettifor Number81
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
50 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
498 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2.9
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0015
quantum number2P1/2
space group64 (Cmca)

Isotopes of Gallium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition6960.11%6960.11%7139.89%7139.89%

56Ga

mass number56
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
55.995878 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

57Ga

mass number57
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
56.983457 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

58Ga

mass number58
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
57.974729 ± 0.000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity+

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

59Ga

mass number59
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
58.963757 ± 0.000183 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity-

decay modeintensity
p (proton emission)

60Ga

mass number60
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
59.957498 ± 0.000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
72.4 ± 1.7 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.6%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.023%

61Ga

mass number61
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
60.949398861 ± 0.000040787 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
165.9 ± 2.5 ms
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.25%

62Ga

mass number62
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
61.944189639 ± 0.000000684 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
116.122 ± 0.021 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1978
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

63Ga

mass number63
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
62.939294194 ± 0.0000014 Da
g-factor
0.097866666666667 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
32.4 ± 0.5 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.212 ± 0.014
time of discovery or invention1965
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

64Ga

mass number64
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
63.936840366 ± 0.000001533 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.627 ± 0.012 m
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1953
parity

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ga

mass number65
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
64.932734424 ± 0.000000849 Da
g-factor
1.182 ± 0.002
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15.133 ± 0.028 m
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.21 ± 0.015
time of discovery or invention1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

66Ga

mass number66
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
65.931589766 ± 0.000001172 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9.304 ± 0.008 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ga

mass number67
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
66.928202276 ± 0.000001262 Da
g-factor
1.2329333333333 ± 0.00033333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3.2617 ± 0.0004 d
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.197 ± 0.002
time of discovery or invention1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
ϵ (electron capture)100%

68Ga

mass number68
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
67.927980161 ± 0.000001535 Da
g-factor
0.01174 ± 0.00007
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
67.842 ± 0.016 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.0277 ± 0.0014
time of discovery or invention1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

69Ga

mass number69
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
68.925573528 ± 0.000001285 Da
g-factor
1.3433466666667 ± 0.00004
natural abundance
60.108 ± 0.05
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.171 ± 0.002
time of discovery or invention1923
parity-

70Ga

mass number70
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
69.926021914 ± 0.000001289 Da
g-factor
0.571 ± 0.002
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21.14 ± 0.05 m
spin1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.105 ± 0.007
time of discovery or invention1937
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)99.59%
ϵ (electron capture)0.41%

71Ga

mass number71
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
70.924702554 ± 0.00000087 Da
g-factor
1.7068866666667 ± 0.00006
natural abundance
39.892 ± 0.05
radioactivitystable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.107 ± 0.001
time of discovery or invention1923
parity-

72Ga

mass number72
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
71.926367452 ± 0.000000878 Da
g-factor
-0.044046666666667 ± 0.0000066666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14.025 ± 0.01 h
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.53 ± 0.006
time of discovery or invention1939
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

73Ga

mass number73
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
72.92517468 ± 0.0000018 Da
g-factor
0.13933333333333 ± 0.0013333333333333
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4.86 ± 0.03 h
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1949
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

74Ga

mass number74
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
73.926945725 ± 0.000003214 Da
g-factor
0 ± 0.026666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8.12 ± 0.12 m
spin3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.55 ± 0.04
time of discovery or invention1956
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

75Ga

mass number75
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
74.926504484 ± 0.00000072 Da
g-factor
1.2233333333333 ± 0.0026666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
126 ± 2 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.285 ± 0.017
time of discovery or invention1960
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

76Ga

mass number76
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
75.928827624 ± 0.0000021 Da
g-factor
-0.4725 ± 0.002
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30.6 ± 0.6 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.33 ± 0.02
time of discovery or invention1961
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

77Ga

mass number77
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
76.929154299 ± 0.0000026 Da
g-factor
1.3453333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13.2 ± 0.2 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.208 ± 0.013
time of discovery or invention1968
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

78Ga

mass number78
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
77.931610854 ± 0.000001127 Da
g-factor
-0.607 ± 0.0025
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5.09 ± 0.05 s
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.33 ± 0.02
time of discovery or invention1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

79Ga

mass number79
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
78.932851582 ± 0.000001296 Da
g-factor
0.69733333333333 ± 0.002
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2.848 ± 0.003 s
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.158 ± 0.01
time of discovery or invention1974
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.089%

80Ga

mass number80
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
79.936420773 ± 0.000003103 Da
g-factor
0.006 ± 0.00066666666666667
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.9 ± 0.1 s
spin6
nuclear quadrupole moment
0.38 ± 0.02
time of discovery or invention1974
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.86%

81Ga

mass number81
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
80.938133841 ± 0.000003503 Da
g-factor
0.6984 ± 0.002
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1.217 ± 0.005 s
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0.048 ± 0.008
time of discovery or invention1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12.5%

82Ga

mass number82
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
81.943176531 ± 0.000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
600 ± 2 ms
spin2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)21.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

83Ga

mass number83
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
82.9471203 ± 0.000002804 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
310 ± 0.7 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)85%
2n (2-neutron emission)

84Ga

mass number84
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
83.952663 ± 0.000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
97.6 ± 1.2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
time of discovery or invention1991
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)43%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.6%

85Ga

mass number85
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
84.957333 ± 0.00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
95.3 ± 1 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)77%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.3%

86Ga

mass number86
neutron number55
relative atomic mass
85.963757 ± 0.000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
49 ± 2 ms
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention1997
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)69%
2n (2-neutron emission)16.2%

87Ga

mass number87
neutron number56
relative atomic mass
86.969007 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
29 ± 4 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention2010
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)81%
2n (2-neutron emission)10.2%

88Ga

mass number88
neutron number57
relative atomic mass
87.975963 ± 0.000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioactivity☢️ radioactive element
half-life
spin
nuclear quadrupole moment
time of discovery or invention
parity

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gallium crystals

storja

discoverer or inventorPaul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
location of discoveryFrance
time of discovery or invention1875
etimoloġijaLatin: Gallia (France).
pronunciationGAL-i-em (Ingliż)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (ocean)
0.00003 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0.00076 %
natural abundance (Xemx)
0.000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6906
2p3.9092
2s8.401
3d15.9067
3p14.7964
3s14.0038
4p24.7784
4s23.9332