Galium, ²Galliumi

Galium, ²Galliumi (Ga)

chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31
Atomic Number31
Atomic Weight69.723
Numri i masës69
Group13
Period4
Blockp
protoni31 p+
neutroni38 n0
elektroni31 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ga (Galium, ²Galliumi)

Tipar Fizik

Atomic Radius
130 pm
molar volume
covalent radius
124 pm
Metallic Radius
125 pm
ionic radius
47 pm
Crystal Radius
61 pm
Van der Waals radius
187 pm
density
5,91 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Galium, ²Galliumi020406080100120140160180200pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energjia
proton affinity
electron affinity
ionization energy
5,9993018 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ga (Galium, ²Galliumi)
enthalpy of vaporization
270,3 kJ/mol
enthalpy of fusion
5,59 kJ/mol
standard enthalpy of formation
271,96 kJ/mol
elektroni
electron shell2, 8, 18, 3
Bohr model: Ga (Galium, ²Galliumi)
valence electron3
Lewis structure: Ga (Galium, ²Galliumi)
konfigurimi i elektronit[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Enhanced Bohr model of Ga (Galium, ²Galliumi)
Orbital Diagram of Ga (Galium, ²Galliumi)
oxidation number-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Elektronegativiteti
1.81
Electrophilicity Index
0,927762651403701 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
gjendja agregate e materiesSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
2 502,15 K
Melting Point
302,9146 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
302,9166 K
appearance
Ngjyra
Silver
appearancesilver-white
refractive index
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
28,1 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,00012 1/K
molar heat capacity
26,03 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,373 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
electrical conductivity
7,1 MS/m
electrical resistivity
0,00000014 m Ω
Superpërcjellshmëria
1,083 K
Magnetizimi
typediamagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
-0,000000003 m³/Kg
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
-0,000000000209 m³/mol
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
-0,0000177
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
Néel temperature
strukturë
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic (ORC)
lattice constant
4,51 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
1,5 MPa
bulk modulus
shear modulus
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Shpejtësia e zërit
2 740 m/s
klasifikim
CategoryPost-transition metals, Poor metals
CAS GroupIIIB
IUPAC GroupIIIA
Glawe Number79
Mendeleev Number83
Pettifor Number81
Geochemical Class
Goldschmidt classificationchalcophile

other

Gas Basicity
polarizability
50 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
498 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
2,9
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0015
numër kuantik2P1/2
space group64 (Cmca)

Isotopes of Gallium

Stable Isotopes2
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes2
Isotopic Composition6960.11%6960.11%7139.89%7139.89%

56Ga

Numri i masës56
numri i neutroneve25
relative atomic mass
55,995878 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini3
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity+

decay modeintensitet
p (proton emission)

57Ga

Numri i masës57
numri i neutroneve26
relative atomic mass
56,983457 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity-

decay modeintensitet
p (proton emission)

58Ga

Numri i masës58
numri i neutroneve27
relative atomic mass
57,974729 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity+

decay modeintensitet
p (proton emission)

59Ga

Numri i masës59
numri i neutroneve28
relative atomic mass
58,963757 ± 0,000183 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity-

decay modeintensitet
p (proton emission)

60Ga

Numri i masës60
numri i neutroneve29
relative atomic mass
59,957498 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
72,4 ± 1,7 ms
Spini2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1995
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)1.6%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)0.023%

61Ga

Numri i masës61
numri i neutroneve30
relative atomic mass
60,949398861 ± 0,000040787 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
165,9 ± 2,5 ms
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1987
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)0.25%

62Ga

Numri i masës62
numri i neutroneve31
relative atomic mass
61,944189639 ± 0,000000684 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
116,122 ± 0,021 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1978
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

63Ga

Numri i masës63
numri i neutroneve32
relative atomic mass
62,939294194 ± 0,0000014 Da
g-factor
0,097866666666667 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
32,4 ± 0,5 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,212 ± 0,014
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1965
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

64Ga

Numri i masës64
numri i neutroneve33
relative atomic mass
63,936840366 ± 0,000001533 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,627 ± 0,012 m
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1953
parity

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

65Ga

Numri i masës65
numri i neutroneve34
relative atomic mass
64,932734424 ± 0,000000849 Da
g-factor
1,182 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
15,133 ± 0,028 m
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,21 ± 0,015
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1938
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

66Ga

Numri i masës66
numri i neutroneve35
relative atomic mass
65,931589766 ± 0,000001172 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
9,304 ± 0,008 h
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1937
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

67Ga

Numri i masës67
numri i neutroneve36
relative atomic mass
66,928202276 ± 0,000001262 Da
g-factor
1,2329333333333 ± 0,00033333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
3,2617 ± 0,0004 d
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,197 ± 0,002
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1938
parity-

decay modeintensitet
ϵ (electron capture)100%

68Ga

Numri i masës68
numri i neutroneve37
relative atomic mass
67,927980161 ± 0,000001535 Da
g-factor
0,01174 ± 0,00007
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
67,842 ± 0,016 m
Spini1
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,0277 ± 0,0014
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1937
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

69Ga

Numri i masës69
numri i neutroneve38
relative atomic mass
68,925573528 ± 0,000001285 Da
g-factor
1,3433466666667 ± 0,00004
natural abundance
60,108 ± 0,05
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,171 ± 0,002
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1923
parity-

70Ga

Numri i masës70
numri i neutroneve39
relative atomic mass
69,926021914 ± 0,000001289 Da
g-factor
0,571 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
21,14 ± 0,05 m
Spini1
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,105 ± 0,007
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1937
parity+

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)99.59%
ϵ (electron capture)0.41%

71Ga

Numri i masës71
numri i neutroneve40
relative atomic mass
70,924702554 ± 0,00000087 Da
g-factor
1,7068866666667 ± 0,00006
natural abundance
39,892 ± 0,05
Radioaktivitetstable isotope
half-lifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,107 ± 0,001
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1923
parity-

72Ga

Numri i masës72
numri i neutroneve41
relative atomic mass
71,926367452 ± 0,000000878 Da
g-factor
-0,044046666666667 ± 0,0000066666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
14,025 ± 0,01 h
Spini3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,53 ± 0,006
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1939
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

73Ga

Numri i masës73
numri i neutroneve42
relative atomic mass
72,92517468 ± 0,0000018 Da
g-factor
0,13933333333333 ± 0,0013333333333333
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
4,86 ± 0,03 h
Spini1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1949
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

74Ga

Numri i masës74
numri i neutroneve43
relative atomic mass
73,926945725 ± 0,000003214 Da
g-factor
0 ± 0,026666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
8,12 ± 0,12 m
Spini3
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,55 ± 0,04
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1956
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

75Ga

Numri i masës75
numri i neutroneve44
relative atomic mass
74,926504484 ± 0,00000072 Da
g-factor
1,2233333333333 ± 0,0026666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
126 ± 2 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,285 ± 0,017
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1960
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

76Ga

Numri i masës76
numri i neutroneve45
relative atomic mass
75,928827624 ± 0,0000021 Da
g-factor
-0,4725 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
30,6 ± 0,6 s
Spini2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,33 ± 0,02
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1961
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

77Ga

Numri i masës77
numri i neutroneve46
relative atomic mass
76,929154299 ± 0,0000026 Da
g-factor
1,3453333333333 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
13,2 ± 0,2 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,208 ± 0,013
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1968
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

78Ga

Numri i masës78
numri i neutroneve47
relative atomic mass
77,931610854 ± 0,000001127 Da
g-factor
-0,607 ± 0,0025
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
5,09 ± 0,05 s
Spini2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,33 ± 0,02
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1972
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%

79Ga

Numri i masës79
numri i neutroneve48
relative atomic mass
78,932851582 ± 0,000001296 Da
g-factor
0,69733333333333 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
2,848 ± 0,003 s
Spini3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,158 ± 0,01
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1974
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.089%

80Ga

Numri i masës80
numri i neutroneve49
relative atomic mass
79,936420773 ± 0,000003103 Da
g-factor
0,006 ± 0,00066666666666667
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,9 ± 0,1 s
Spini6
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,38 ± 0,02
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1974
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.86%

81Ga

Numri i masës81
numri i neutroneve50
relative atomic mass
80,938133841 ± 0,000003503 Da
g-factor
0,6984 ± 0,002
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
1,217 ± 0,005 s
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
-0,048 ± 0,008
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1976
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)12.5%

82Ga

Numri i masës82
numri i neutroneve51
relative atomic mass
81,943176531 ± 0,000002604 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
600 ± 2 ms
Spini2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1976
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)21.2%
2n (2-neutron emission)

83Ga

Numri i masës83
numri i neutroneve52
relative atomic mass
82,9471203 ± 0,000002804 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
310 ± 0,7 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1976
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)85%
2n (2-neutron emission)

84Ga

Numri i masës84
numri i neutroneve53
relative atomic mass
83,952663 ± 0,000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
97,6 ± 1,2 ms
Spini0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1991
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)43%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.6%

85Ga

Numri i masës85
numri i neutroneve54
relative atomic mass
84,957333 ± 0,00004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
95,3 ± 1 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)77%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.3%

86Ga

Numri i masës86
numri i neutroneve55
relative atomic mass
85,963757 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
49 ± 2 ms
Spini
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1997
parity

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)69%
2n (2-neutron emission)16.2%

87Ga

Numri i masës87
numri i neutroneve56
relative atomic mass
86,969007 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
29 ± 4 ms
Spini5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes2010
parity-

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)81%
2n (2-neutron emission)10.2%

88Ga

Numri i masës88
numri i neutroneve57
relative atomic mass
87,975963 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
Radioaktivitet☢️ radioactive element
half-life
Spini
nuclear quadrupole moment
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes
parity

decay modeintensitet
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
Gallium crystals

historia

zbuluesPaul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
vendndodhja e zbulimitFrance
koha e zbulimit apo shpikjes1875
EtimologjiaLatin: Gallia (France).
pronunciationGAL-i-em (anglisht)

burim

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (Oqeani)
0,00003 mg/L
natural abundance (Trupi i njeriut)
natural abundance (meteoroid)
0,00076 %
natural abundance (Diell)
0,000004 %
Abundance in Universe
0,000001 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6906
2p3.9092
2s8.401
3d15.9067
3p14.7964
3s14.0038
4p24.7784
4s23.9332