Nitrogen

Nitrogen (N)

Colourless, gaseous element which belongs to group 15 of the periodic table. Constitutes ~78% of the atmosphere and is an essential part of the ecosystem. Nitrogen for industrial purposes is acquired by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Chemically inactive, reactive generally only at high temperatures or in electrical discharges. It was discovered in 1772 by D. Rutherford.
Atomic Number7
Atomic Weight14.007
Mass Number14
Group15
Period2
Blockp
Protons7 p+
Neutrons7 n0
Electrons7 e-
Liquidnitrogen.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
65 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
71 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
146 pm
Crystal Radius
132 pm
Van der Waals radius
155 pm
Density
0.001145 g/cm³
Boiling Point
77.4 K
Melting Point
63.29 K
Electrons per shell2, 5
Electronegativity
3.04
Electrophilicity
1.3532694509906 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
342.2 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
14.53413 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
472.44 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
29.124 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
0.026 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
318.7 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
7.4 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
24.2 a₀
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Color
Colorless
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal (HEX)
Lattice Constant
4.039 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p3
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseGas
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryOther nonmetals, Nonmetals
CAS GroupVB
IUPAC GroupVA
Glawe Number88
Mendeleev Number93
Pettifor Number100
Geochemical Classvolatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.5 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.1%

Isotopes of Nitrogen

Stable Isotopes
14N 15N
Unstable Isotopes
10N 11N 12N 13N 16N 17N 18N 19N 20N 21N 22N 23N 24N 25N

History

Nitrogen is considered to have been discovered by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air. It was also studied at about the same time by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish and Joseph Priestley. In 1790 the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal named the element nitrogen. From the Latin word nitrum, Greek Nitron, native soda; and genes, forming

DiscoverersDaniel Rutherford
Discovery LocationScotland
Discovery Year1772
Name OriginGreek: nitron and genes, (soda forming).
Rapid release of nitrogen gas into an enclosed space can displace oxygen, and therefore represents an asphyxiation hazard
Nitrogen is present in all living organisms, in proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules

Uses

Nitrogen is used to produce ammonia and fertilizers, vital for current food production methods. Liquid nitrogen is used as a refrigerant. Nitric acid is used as an oxidizing agent in liquid fueled rockets. Nitrogen is a constituent of molecules in every major drug class in pharmacology and medicine. Primarily to produce ammonia and other fertilizers. Also used in making nitric acid, which is used in explosives. Also used in welding and enhanced oil recovery.

Sources

Obtained from liquid air by fractional distillation.