Sodium

Sodium (Na)

Sodium is the 11th element in the periodic table and has a symbol of Na and atomic number of 11. It has an atomic weight of 22.98977 and a mass number of 23. Sodium has eleven protons and twelve neutrons in its nucleus, and eleven electrons in three shells. It is located in group one, period three and block s of the periodic table. Soft silvery reactive element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). It is highly reactive, oxidizing in air and reacting violently with water, forcing it to be kept under oil. It was first isolated by Humphrey Davy in 1807.
Atomic Number11
Atomic Weight22.98976928
Mass Number23
Group1
Period3
Blocks
Protons11 p+
Neutrons12 n0
Electrons11 e-
Animated Bohr Model of Na (Sodium)

Physical Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
155 pm
Metallic Radius
157 pm
Ionic Radius
99 pm
Crystal Radius
113 pm
Van der Waals Radius
227 pm
Density
0.97 g/cm³
Atomic Radii of the Elements: Sodium0102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230pmAtomic RadiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals Radius

Chemical Properties

Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.547926 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
5.1390767 eV/particle
Ionization Energies of Na (Sodium)
Heat of Vaporization
97.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.64 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
107.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 1
Bohr Model: Na (Sodium)
Valence Electrons1
Lewis Structure: Na (Sodium)
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
Enhanced Bohr Model of Na (Sodium)
Orbital Diagram of Na (Sodium)
Oxidation States-1, 0, 1
Electronegativity
0.93
Electrophilicity Index
0.8805526605183994 eV/particle
States of Matter
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,156.09 K
Melting Point
370.944 K
Critical Pressure
35 MPa
Critical Temperature
2,573.15 K
Triple Point
Visual

Sodium is a Silver. Na has a CPK of #0000ff, Jmol of #ab5cf2, and MOLCAS GV of #ab5cf2. The Appearance of Element 11 is silvery white metallic.

Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.00007 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
28.23 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.228 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
21 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000004699999999998 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000088 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000002 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000086
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure

The Crystal Structure of Sodium is BCC. The lattice constant of Na is 4.23 Å. The lattice angles of Element 11 are π/2, π/2, π/2.

Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
4.23 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties

Sodium has a Brinell of 0.69 MPa, and Mohs hardness of 0.5 MPa. The Bulk Modulus of Na is 6.3 GPa. The Shear Modulus of Element 11 is 3.3 GPa. The Young Modulus of Sodium (Na) is 10 GPa. The Speed of Sound of Sodium is 3200 m/s.

Hardness
0.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
6.3 GPa
Shear Modulus
3.3 GPa
Young's Modulus
10 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
3,200 m/s
Classification

The CAS Group of Sodium is IA. The IUPAC Group of Na is IA. The Glawe Number of Element 11 is 11. The Mendeleev Number of Sodium (Na) is 2. The Pettifor Number of Sodium is 11. The Geochemical Class of Na is major. The Goldschmidt Class of Element 11 is litophile.

CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number11
Mendeleev Number2
Pettifor Number11
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile

Other

The Dipole Polarizability of Sodium is 162.7 plus or minus 0.5 a₀. Na has a C6 Dispersion Coefficient (CD) of 1518 a₀, and C6 Dispersion Coefficient (GB) of 1570 a₀. The Allotropes of Element 11 is . The Neutron Cross Section of Sodium (Na) is 0.53. The Neutron Mass Absorption of Sodium is 0.0007. The Quantum Numbers of Na is 2S1/2. The Space Group of Element 11 is 229 (Im_3m).

Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
162.7 ± 0.5 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,518 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.53
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0007
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Sodium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes22
Natural Isotopes1

17Na

Mass Number17
Neutron Number6
Relative Atomic Mass
17.037273 ± 0.000064 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2017
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

18Na

Mass Number18
Neutron Number7
Relative Atomic Mass
18.026879388 ± 0.000100785 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.3 ± 0.4 zs
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2004
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)

19Na

Mass Number19
Neutron Number8
Relative Atomic Mass
19.013880264 ± 0.000011309 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

20Na

Mass Number20
Neutron Number9
Relative Atomic Mass
20.007354301 ± 0.00000119 Da
G-Factor
0.1847 ± 0.0001
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
447.9 ± 2.3 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.101 ± 0.008
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)25%

21Na

Mass Number21
Neutron Number10
Relative Atomic Mass
20.997654459 ± 0.000000045 Da
G-Factor
1.5907333333333 ± 0.000026666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
22.455 ± 0.0054 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.138 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

22Na

Mass Number22
Neutron Number11
Relative Atomic Mass
21.994437547 ± 0.000000141 Da
G-Factor
0.582 ± 0.001
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
2.6019 ± 0.0006 y
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.18 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)90.57%
ϵ (electron capture)9.43%

23Na

Mass Number23
Neutron Number12
Relative Atomic Mass
22.98976928195 ± 0.00000000194 Da
G-Factor
1.4783333333333 ± 0.00002
Abundance
100
RadioactivityStable
Half LifeNot Radioactive ☢️
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.104 ± 0.001
Discovery Year1921
Parity+

24Na

Mass Number24
Neutron Number13
Relative Atomic Mass
23.990963012 ± 0.000000017 Da
G-Factor
0.422575 ± 0.0002
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
14.956 ± 0.0015 h
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

25Na

Mass Number25
Neutron Number14
Relative Atomic Mass
24.989953974 ± 0.000001288 Da
G-Factor
1.4732 ± 0.0016
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
59.1 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0015 ± 0.0003
Discovery Year1943
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

26Na

Mass Number26
Neutron Number15
Relative Atomic Mass
25.992634649 ± 0.000003759 Da
G-Factor
0.95033333333333 ± 0.00066666666666667
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1,071.28 ± 0.25 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0053 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

27Na

Mass Number27
Neutron Number16
Relative Atomic Mass
26.994076408 ± 0.000004 Da
G-Factor
1.558 ± 0.002
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
301 ± 6 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0071 ± 0.0003
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.098%

28Na

Mass Number28
Neutron Number17
Relative Atomic Mass
27.998939 ± 0.000011 Da
G-Factor
2.426 ± 0.003
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
33.1 ± 1.3 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.389 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.58%

29Na

Mass Number29
Neutron Number18
Relative Atomic Mass
29.002877091 ± 0.000007876 Da
G-Factor
1.6326666666667 ± 0.0053333333333333
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
43.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.085 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)22%
2n (2-neutron emission)

30Na

Mass Number30
Neutron Number19
Relative Atomic Mass
30.009097931 ± 0.000005074 Da
G-Factor
1.0415 ± 0.005
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
45.9 ± 0.7 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28.6%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.24%
βα (β-delayed α emission)5.5%

31Na

Mass Number31
Neutron Number20
Relative Atomic Mass
31.013146654 ± 0.000015 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
16.8 ± 0.3 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)36%
2n (2-neutron emission)0.73%
3n (3-neutron emission)0.05%

32Na

Mass Number32
Neutron Number21
Relative Atomic Mass
32.020011024 ± 0.00004 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
12.9 ± 0.3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%
2n (2-neutron emission)7.6%

33Na

Mass Number33
Neutron Number22
Relative Atomic Mass
33.025529 ± 0.000483 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
8.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)47%
2n (2-neutron emission)13%

34Na

Mass Number34
Neutron Number23
Relative Atomic Mass
34.03401 ± 0.0006435 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
5.5 ± 1 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
2n (2-neutron emission)50%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)15%

35Na

Mass Number35
Neutron Number24
Relative Atomic Mass
35.040614 ± 0.00072 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
1.5 ± 0.5 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

36Na

Mass Number36
Neutron Number25
Relative Atomic Mass
36.049279 ± 0.000737 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)

37Na

Mass Number37
Neutron Number26
Relative Atomic Mass
37.057042 ± 0.000737 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2002
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

38Na

Mass Number38
Neutron Number27
Relative Atomic Mass
38.066458 ± 0.000768 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)

39Na

Mass Number39
Neutron Number28
Relative Atomic Mass
39.075123 ± 0.000797 Da
G-Factor
Abundance
Radioactivity☢️ Radioactive
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2019
Parity+

Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)
Sodium Atom

History

The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols. It is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy isolated sodium for the first time by electrolysis of dried sodium hydroxide, which had been very slightly moistened. From the English word, soda; Medieval Latin, sodanum: a headache remedy

DiscoverersSir Humphrey Davy
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1807
Etymology (Name Origin)Medieval Latin: sodanum, (headache remedy); symbol from Latin natrium, (sodium carbonate).
PronunciationSO-di-em (English)
Sodium metal should be handled with great care as it cannot be maintained in an inert atmosphere
Sodium burns in air with a brilliant yellow flame

Uses

Metallic sodium is vital in the manufacture of esters and in the preparation of organic compounds. Sodium vapor lamps are often used for street lighting in cities. Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors. Sodium is also used as an alloying metal, an anti-scaling agent, and as a reducing agent for metals when other materials are ineffective. There are few uses for the pure metal, however its compounds are used in medicine, agriculture and photography. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is table salt. Liquid sodium is sometimes used to cool nuclear reactors.

Sources

Obtained by electrolysis of melted sodium chloride (salt), borax and cryolite.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
23,600 mg/kg
Natural Abundance (Oceans)
10,800 mg/L
Natural Abundance (Human Body)
0.14 %
Natural Abundance (Meteor)
0.55 %
Natural Abundance (Sun)
0.004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3741
2p4.1982
2s4.4286
3s8.4926

Also Known As

  • Na
  • element 11
  • 11Na

Translations

  • Italiansodio
  • Norwegian Bokmålnatrium
  • Frenchsodium
  • GermanNatrium
  • Dutchnatrium
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • Spanishsodio
  • Finnishnatrium
  • Afrikaansnatrium
  • Amharicሶዲየም
  • Aragonesesodio
  • Arabicصوديوم
  • Asturiansodiu
  • Azerbaijaninatrium
  • Belarusianнатрый
  • Bulgarianнатрий
  • Banglaসোডিয়াম
  • Bretonsodiom
  • Bosniannatrij
  • Catalansodi
  • Central Kurdishسۆدیوم
  • Corsicansodiu
  • Czechsodík
  • Chuvashнатри
  • Welshsodiwm
  • Danishnatrium
  • Divehiސޯޑިއަމް
  • Greekνάτριο
  • Esperantonatrio
  • Estoniannaatrium
  • Basquesodio
  • Persianسدیم
  • Northern FrisianNatrium
  • Friuliansodi
  • Western Frisiannatrium
  • Irishsóidiam
  • Scottish Gaelicsòidium
  • Galiciansodio
  • Gujaratiસોડિયમ
  • Manxsodjum
  • Hakka Chinesena̍p
  • Hawaiiansodiuma
  • Hebrewנתרן
  • Hindiसोडियम
  • Fiji Hindisodium
  • Croatiannatrij
  • Haitian Creolesodyòm
  • Hungariannátrium
  • Armenianնատրիում
  • Interlinguasodium
  • Indonesiannatrium
  • Idonatro
  • Icelandicnatrín
  • Japaneseナトリウム
  • Lojbansodna
  • Javanesenatrium
  • Georgianნატრიუმი
  • Kannadaಸೋಡಿಯಮ್
  • Korean나트륨
  • Kurdishnatriyûm
  • Komiнатрий
  • Latinnatrium
  • LuxembourgishNatrium
  • Liguriansodio
  • Lingalasodu
  • Lithuaniannatris
  • Latviannātrijs
  • Māorikonutai
  • Macedonianнатриум
  • Malayalamസോഡിയം
  • Marathiसोडियम
  • Western Mariнатрий
  • Malaynatrium
  • Burmeseဆိုဒီယမ်
  • Low GermanNatrium
  • Nepaliसोडियम
  • Norwegian Nynorsknatrium
  • Novialnatrium
  • nrmsôdgium
  • Navajosoodin
  • Occitansòdi
  • Punjabiਸੋਡੀਅਮ
  • Polishsód
  • Western Panjabiسوڈیم
  • Ponticνάτριον
  • Portuguesesódio
  • Quechuanatriyu
  • Romaniansodiu
  • Russianнатрий
  • Yakutнатриум
  • Siciliansodiu
  • Serbo-Croatiannatrij
  • Sinhalaසෝඩියම්
  • Slovaksodík
  • Sloveniannatrij
  • Somalisaadiyom
  • Albaniannatriumi
  • Serbianнатријум
  • Saterland FrisianNatrium
  • Swedishnatrium
  • Swahilinatiri
  • Tamilசோடியம்
  • Teluguసోడియమ్
  • Tajikнатрий
  • Thaiโซเดียม
  • Tagalogsodyo
  • Turkishsodyum
  • Tatarнатрий
  • Uyghurناترىي
  • Ukrainianнатрій
  • Uzbeknatriy
  • Vepsnatrii
  • Vietnamesenatri
  • Walloonsodiom
  • Waraysodyo
  • Kalmykнатрион
  • Yiddishנאטריום
  • Yorubasodiomu
  • Chinese
  • English (Canada)sodium
  • English (United Kingdom)sodium
  • German (Switzerland)Natrium
  • Portuguese (Brazil)sódio
  • Cantonese
  • Urduصوداصر
  • Cebuanosodio
  • Odiaସୋଡ଼ିଅମ
  • Kazakhнатрий
  • Newariसोडियम
  • Piedmontesesòdio
  • Scotssodium
  • Chinese (China)
  • Chinese (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • Literary Chinese
  • Belarusian (Taraskievica orthography)натар
  • Min Nan ChineseNa
  • Mongolianнатри
  • Kikuyusodium
  • Aromaniannatriu
  • Kyrgyzнатрий
  • cdonăk
  • Limburgishnatrium
  • Kara-Kalpaknаtriy
  • Faroesenatrium
  • Sanskritसोडियम
  • Lombardsodio
  • Maltesesodju
  • Paliसोडियम
  • Gan Chinese
  • azbسودیوم
  • Sundanesenatrium
  • Bhojpuriसोडियम
  • Tibetanབུལ་རྫས།
  • olonatrii
  • Lingua Franca Novasodio
  • kbpsɔdɩyɔm
  • Khmerសូដ្យូម
  • Wu Chinese
  • Egyptian Arabicصوديوم
  • hywՆաթրիոն
  • Chinese (Taiwan)
  • Extremaduransodiu
  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Sardiniansòdiu
  • Chinese (Singapore)
  • Chinese (Malaysia)
  • Chinese (Macao SAR China)
  • Venetiansòdio
  • Moroccan Arabicصوديوم
  • Pashtoسوډيوم
  • Bikolsodyo
  • Manipuriꯁꯣꯗꯤꯌꯝ
  • Cornishsodiom
  • Balinesenatrium
  • Minangkabaunatrium
  • Malay (Arabic)نتريوم
  • Korean (North Korea)나트리움
  • blkသိုဒီယမ်
  • Sindhiسوڊيئم
  • skrسوڈیم
  • OromoSodiyeemii