Sodium

Sodium (Na)

Soft silvery reactive element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). It is highly reactive, oxidizing in air and reacting violently with water, forcing it to be kept under oil. It was first isolated by Humphrey Davy in 1807.
Atomic Number11
Atomic Weight22.98976928
Mass Number23
Group1
Period3
Blocks
Protons11 p+
Neutrons12 n0
Electrons11 e-
Na (Sodium).jpg Animated Bohr Model of Na (Sodium) Enhanced Bohr Model of Na (Sodium) Bohr Model: Na (Sodium) Orbital Diagram of Na (Sodium)

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Molar Volume
Covalent Radius
155 pm
Metallic Radius
157 pm
Ionic Radius
99 pm
Crystal Radius
113 pm
Van der Waals Radius
227 pm
Density
0.97 g/cm³
Energy
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.547926 eV/particle
Ionization Energy
5.1390767 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
97.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.64 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
107.5 kJ/mol
Electrons
Electron Shells2, 8, 1
Valence Electrons1
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s1
Oxidation States-1, 0, 1
Electronegativity
0.93
Electrophilicity
0.8805526605183994 eV/particle
Phases
PhaseSolid
Gas Phase
Boiling Point
1,156.09 K
Melting Point
370.944 K
Critical Pressure
35 MPa
Critical Temperature
2,573.15 K
Triple Point
Visual
Color
Silver
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Refractive Index
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Thermal Expansion
0.00007 1/K
Molar Heat Capacity
28.23 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.228 J/(g⋅K)
Heat Capacity Ratio (Adiabatic Index)
Electrical Properties
TypeConductor
Electrical Conductivity
21 MS/m
Electrical Resistivity
0.00000004699999999998 m Ω
Superconducting Point
Magnetism
Typeparamagnetic
Magnetic Susceptibility (Mass)
0.0000000088 m³/Kg
Magnetic Susceptibility (Molar)
0.0000000002 m³/mol
Magnetic Susceptibility (Volume)
0.0000086
Magnetic Ordering
Curie Point
Neel Point
Structure
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
4.23 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
Mechanical Properties
Hardness
0.5 MPa
Bulk Modulus
6.3 GPa
Shear Modulus
3.3 GPa
Young Modulus
10 GPa
Poisson Ratio
Speed of Sound
3,200 m/s
Classification
CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number11
Mendeleev Number2
Pettifor Number11
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Other
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
162.7 ± 0.5 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,518 a₀
Allotropes
Neutron Cross Section
0.53
Neutron Mass Absorption
0.0007
Quantum Numbers2S1/2
Space Group229 (Im_3m)

Isotopes of Sodium

Stable Isotopes1
Unstable Isotopes22
Radioactive Isotopes19

17Na

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
17.037273 ± 0.000064 Da
Mass Number17
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin1/2
Quadrupole Moment
0
Discovery Year2017
Parity+

17Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

18Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
18.026879388 ± 0.000100785 Da
Mass Number18
G-Factor
Half Life
1.3 ± 0.4 zs
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2004
Parity-

18Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)%

19Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
19.013880264 ± 0.000011309 Da
Mass Number19
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

19Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
p (proton emission)100%

20Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
20.007354301 ± 0.00000119 Da
Mass Number20
G-Factor
0.1847 ± 0.0001
Half Life
447.9 ± 2.3 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
0.101 ± 0.008
Discovery Year1950
Parity+

20Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+α (β+-delayed α emission)25%

21Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
20.997654459 ± 0.000000045 Da
Mass Number21
G-Factor
1.5907333333333 ± 0.000026666666666667
Half Life
22.455 ± 0.0054 s
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.138 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1940
Parity+

21Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

22Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
21.994437547 ± 0.000000141 Da
Mass Number22
G-Factor
0.582 ± 0.001
Half Life
2.6019 ± 0.0006 y
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
0.18 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1935
Parity+

22Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
e+ (positron emission)90.57%
ϵ (electron capture)9.43%

23Na

Abundance
100
Relative Atomic Mass
22.98976928195 ± 0.00000000194 Da
Mass Number23
G-Factor
1.4783333333333 ± 0.00002
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.104 ± 0.001
Discovery Year1921
Parity+

24Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
23.990963012 ± 0.000000017 Da
Mass Number24
G-Factor
0.422575 ± 0.0002
Half Life
14.956 ± 0.0015 h
Spin4
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1934
Parity+

24Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

25Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
24.989953974 ± 0.000001288 Da
Mass Number25
G-Factor
1.4732 ± 0.0016
Half Life
59.1 ± 0.6 s
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.0015 ± 0.0003
Discovery Year1943
Parity+

25Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

26Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
25.992634649 ± 0.000003759 Da
Mass Number26
G-Factor
0.95033333333333 ± 0.00066666666666667
Half Life
1,071.28 ± 0.25 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0053 ± 0.0002
Discovery Year1958
Parity+

26Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%

27Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
26.994076408 ± 0.000004 Da
Mass Number27
G-Factor
1.558 ± 0.002
Half Life
301 ± 6 ms
Spin5/2
Quadrupole Moment
-0.0071 ± 0.0003
Discovery Year1968
Parity+

27Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.098%

28Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
27.998939 ± 0.000011 Da
Mass Number28
G-Factor
2.426 ± 0.003
Half Life
33.1 ± 1.3 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
0.389 ± 0.011
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

28Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)0.58%

29Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
29.002877091 ± 0.000007876 Da
Mass Number29
G-Factor
1.6326666666667 ± 0.0053333333333333
Half Life
43.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
0.085 ± 0.003
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

29Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)22%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

30Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
30.009097931 ± 0.000005074 Da
Mass Number30
G-Factor
1.0415 ± 0.005
Half Life
45.9 ± 0.7 ms
Spin2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

30Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)28.6%
2n (2-neutron emission)1.24%
βα (β-delayed α emission)5.5%

31Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
31.013146654 ± 0.000015 Da
Mass Number31
G-Factor
Half Life
16.8 ± 0.3 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1969
Parity+

31Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)36%
2n (2-neutron emission)0.73%
3n (3-neutron emission)0.05%

32Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
32.020011024 ± 0.00004 Da
Mass Number32
G-Factor
Half Life
12.9 ± 0.3 ms
Spin3
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity-

32Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%
2n (2-neutron emission)7.6%

33Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
33.025529 ± 0.000483 Da
Mass Number33
G-Factor
Half Life
8.2 ± 0.4 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1972
Parity+

33Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)47%
2n (2-neutron emission)13%

34Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
34.03401 ± 0.0006435 Da
Mass Number34
G-Factor
Half Life
5.5 ± 1 ms
Spin1
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

34Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
2n (2-neutron emission)50%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)15%

35Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
35.040614 ± 0.00072 Da
Mass Number35
G-Factor
Half Life
1.5 ± 0.5 ms
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year1983
Parity+

35Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

36Na

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
36.049279 ± 0.000737 Da
Mass Number36
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

36Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

37Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
37.057042 ± 0.000737 Da
Mass Number37
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2002
Parity+

37Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

38Na

Abundance
Relative Atomic Mass
38.066458 ± 0.000768 Da
Mass Number38
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year
Parity

38Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
n (neutron emission)%

39Na

AbundanceRadioactive ☢️
Relative Atomic Mass
39.075123 ± 0.000797 Da
Mass Number39
G-Factor
Half Life
Spin3/2
Quadrupole Moment
Discovery Year2019
Parity+

39Na Decay Modes
Decay ModeIntensity
β (β decay)%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)%
2n (2-neutron emission)%

History

The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols. It is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy isolated sodium for the first time by electrolysis of dried sodium hydroxide, which had been very slightly moistened. From the English word, soda; Medieval Latin, sodanum: a headache remedy

DiscoverersSir Humphrey Davy
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1807
Etymology (Name Origin)Medieval Latin: sodanum, (headache remedy); symbol from Latin natrium, (sodium carbonate).
PronunciationSO-di-em (English)
Sodium metal should be handled with great care as it cannot be maintained in an inert atmosphere
Sodium burns in air with a brilliant yellow flame

Uses

Metallic sodium is vital in the manufacture of esters and in the preparation of organic compounds. Sodium vapor lamps are often used for street lighting in cities. Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors. Sodium is also used as an alloying metal, an anti-scaling agent, and as a reducing agent for metals when other materials are ineffective. There are few uses for the pure metal, however its compounds are used in medicine, agriculture and photography. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is table salt. Liquid sodium is sometimes used to cool nuclear reactors.

Sources

Obtained by electrolysis of melted sodium chloride (salt), borax and cryolite.

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
23,600 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
10,800 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
0.14 %
Abundance in Meteor
0.55 %
Abundance in Sun
0.004 %
Abundance in Universe
0.002 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.3741
2p4.1982
2s4.4286
3s8.4926