Sodium

Sodium (Na)

Soft silvery reactive element belonging to group 1 of the periodic table (alkali metals). It is highly reactive, oxidizing in air and reacting violently with water, forcing it to be kept under oil. It was first isolated by Humphrey Davy in 1807.
Atomic Number11
Atomic Weight22.98976928
Mass Number23
Group1
Period3
Blocks
Protons11 p+
Neutrons12 n0
Electrons11 e-
Na (Sodium).jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
180 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
155 pm
Metallic Radius
157 pm
Ionic Radius
99 pm
Crystal Radius
112.99999999999999 pm
Van der Waals radius
227 pm
Density
0.97 g/cm³
Boiling Point
1,156.1 K
Melting Point
370.96 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 1
Electronegativity
0.93
Electrophilicity
0.8805526605184 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
Electron Affinity
0.547926 eV/particle
Ionization Potential
5.1390767 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
97.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
2.64 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
107.5 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
28.23 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
1.228 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
Dipole Polarizability
162.7 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
1,518 a₀
Oxidation States-1, 1
Color
Silver
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant
4.23 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s1
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryAlkali metals, Alkali metals
CAS GroupIA
IUPAC GroupIA
Glawe Number11
Mendeleev Number2
Pettifor Number11
Geochemical Classmajor
Goldschmidt Classlitophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
23,600 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
10,800 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.002%

Isotopes of Sodium

Stable Isotopes
23Na
Unstable Isotopes
18Na 19Na 20Na 21Na 22Na 24Na 25Na 26Na 27Na 28Na 29Na 30Na 31Na 32Na 33Na 34Na 35Na 36Na 37Na

History

The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols. It is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt primarily made of hydrated sodium carbonate. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy isolated sodium for the first time by electrolysis of dried sodium hydroxide, which had been very slightly moistened. From the English word, soda; Medieval Latin, sodanum: a headache remedy

DiscoverersSir Humphrey Davy
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1807
Name OriginMedieval Latin: sodanum, (headache remedy); symbol from Latin natrium, (sodium carbonate).
Sodium metal should be handled with great care as it cannot be maintained in an inert atmosphere
Sodium burns in air with a brilliant yellow flame

Uses

Metallic sodium is vital in the manufacture of esters and in the preparation of organic compounds. Sodium vapor lamps are often used for street lighting in cities. Liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid in some fast reactors. Sodium is also used as an alloying metal, an anti-scaling agent, and as a reducing agent for metals when other materials are ineffective. There are few uses for the pure metal, however its compounds are used in medicine, agriculture and photography. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is table salt. Liquid sodium is sometimes used to cool nuclear reactors.

Sources

Obtained by electrolysis of melted sodium chloride (salt), borax and cryolite.