Neon

Neon (Ne)

Colourless gaseous element of group 18 on the periodic table (noble gases). Neon occurs in the atmosphere, and comprises 0.0018% of the volume of the atmosphere. It has a distinct reddish glow when used in discharge tubes and neon based lamps. It forms almost no chemical compounds. Neon was discovered in 1898 by Sir William Ramsey and M.W. Travers.
Atomic Number10
Atomic Weight20.1797
Mass Number20
Group18
Period2
Blockp
Protons10 p+
Neutrons10 n0
Electrons10 e-
NeTube.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
160 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
67 pm
Metallic Radius
Ionic Radius
Crystal Radius
Van der Waals radius
154 pm
Density
0.000825 g/cm³
Boiling Point
27.1 K
Melting Point
48 K
Electrons per shell2, 8
Electronegativity
Electrophilicity
Proton Affinity
198.8 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
21.56454 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
1.74 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Formation
Molar Heat Capacity
20.786 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
Gas Basicity
174.4 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
2.6611 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
6.2 a₀
Oxidation States0
Color
Colorless
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
4.43 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p6
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseGas
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryNoble gases, Noble gases
CAS GroupVIII
IUPAC GroupVIIIA
Glawe Number2
Mendeleev Number113
Pettifor Number2
Geochemical Classvolatile
Goldschmidt Classatmophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
0.005 mg/kg
Abundance in Oceans
0.00012 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.13%

Isotopes of Neon

Stable Isotopes
20Ne 21Ne 22Ne
Unstable Isotopes
16Ne 17Ne 18Ne 19Ne 23Ne 24Ne 25Ne 26Ne 27Ne 28Ne 29Ne 30Ne 31Ne 32Ne 33Ne 34Ne

History

Neon was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in London. It was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of air until it became a liquid, then warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. After 1902, Georges Claude's company, Air Liquide, was producing industrial quantities of neon as a byproduct of his air liquefaction business. From the Greek word neos, new

DiscoverersSir William Ramsey, M.W. Travers
Discovery LocationEngland
Discovery Year1898
Name OriginGreek: neos (new).
Neon is not known to be toxic
In a vacuum discharge tube, neon glows reddish orange

Uses

Neon is often used in brightly lit advertising signs. It is also used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Liquid neon is used as a cryogenic refrigerant. Primarily for lighting.

Sources

Obtained from production of liquid air as a byproduct of producing liquid oxygen and nitrogen.