Nikkel

Nikkel (Ni)

chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28
Atomic Number28
Atomic Weight58.6934
Massagetal58
Group10
Period4
Blockd
proton28 p+
neutron30 n0
elektron28 e-
Animated Bohr model of Ni (Nikkel)

Physical Property

Atoomradius
135 pm
molar volume
Covalent Radius
110 pm
Metallic Radius
115 pm
Ioonradius
55 pm
Crystal Radius
69 pm
Van der Waals radius
197 pm
density
8,9 g/cm³
Atomic Radii Of The Elements: Nikkel020406080100120140160180200pmAtoomradiusCovalent RadiusMetallic RadiusVan der Waals radius

Chemical Property

energie
proton affinity
737 kJ/mol
electron affinity
ionization energy
7,639877 eV/particle
ionization energy of Ni (Nikkel)
Verdampingswarmte
378,6 kJ/mol
smeltingswarmte
17,61 kJ/mol
Vormingsentalpie
430,1 kJ/mol
elektron
Elektronskil2, 8, 16, 2
Bohr model: Ni (Nikkel)
Valenselektrone2
Lewisteorie: Ni (Nikkel)
elektronkonfigurasie[Ar] 3d8 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2
Enhanced Bohr model of Ni (Nikkel)
Orbital Diagram of Ni (Nikkel)
Oksidasietoestand-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Elektronegatiwiteit
1.91
Electrophilicity Index
1,4915353151966217 eV/particle
fundamental state of matter
phase of matterSolid
gaseous state of matter
Boiling Point
3 186,15 K
Melting Point
1 728,15 K
critical pressure
critical temperature
triple point
appearance
kleur
Gray
appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
Brekingsindeks
thermodynamic material property
Thermal Conductivity
90,9 W/(m K)
thermal expansion
0,0000134 1/K
molar heat capacity
26,07 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0,444 J/(g⋅K)
heat capacity ratio
electrical properties
typeConductor
Geleidingsvermoë
14 MS/m
Elektriese resistiwiteit
0,00000007000000000002 m Ω
superconductivity
Magnetisme
typeferromagnetic
magnetic susceptibility (Mass)
magnetic susceptibility (Molar)
magnetic susceptibility (Volume)
magnetic ordering
Curie temperature
631 K
Néel temperature
structure
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
lattice constant
3,52 Å
Lattice Anglesπ/2, π/2, π/2
mechanical property
hardness
4 MPa
Massamodulus
180 GPa
Skuifmodulus
76 GPa
Young se modulus
200 GPa
Poisson se verhouding
0,31
Spoed van klank
4 970 m/s
classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number69
Mendeleev Number67
Pettifor Number67
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt classificationsiderophile

other

Gas Basicity
714,1 kJ/mol
polarizability
49 ± 3 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
373 a₀
allotrope
Neutron cross section
4,5
Neutron Mass Absorption
0,0026
quantum number3F4
Ruimtegroep225 (Fm_3m)

Isotopes of Nickel

Stable Isotopes4
Unstable Isotopes31
Natural Isotopes5
Isotopic Composition5868.08%5868.08%6026.22%6026.22%623.63%623.63%611.14%611.14%640.93%640.93%

48Ni

Massagetal48
neutron number20
relative atomic mass
48,019515 ± 0,000455 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,8 ± 0,8 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2000
parity+

decay modeintensity
2p (2-proton emission)70%
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)30%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

49Ni

Massagetal49
neutron number21
relative atomic mass
49,009157 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
7,5 ± 1 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1996
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)83.4%

50Ni

Massagetal50
neutron number22
relative atomic mass
49,996286 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
18,5 ± 1,2 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1994
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)73%
2p (2-proton emission)14%

51Ni

Massagetal51
neutron number23
relative atomic mass
50,987493 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
23,8 ± 0,2 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)87.2%
2p (2-proton emission)0.5%

52Ni

Massagetal52
neutron number24
relative atomic mass
51,975781 ± 0,000089 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
41,8 ± 1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)31.1%

53Ni

Massagetal53
neutron number25
relative atomic mass
52,96819 ± 0,000027 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
55,2 ± 0,7 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1976
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)22.7%

54Ni

Massagetal54
neutron number26
relative atomic mass
53,957833 ± 0,000005 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
114,1 ± 0,3 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1977
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%
β+ p (β+-delayed proton emission)

55Ni

Massagetal55
neutron number27
relative atomic mass
54,951329846 ± 0,000000757 Da
g-factor
0,28 ± 0,0085714285714286
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
203,9 ± 1,3 ms
spin7/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1972
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

56Ni

Massagetal56
neutron number28
relative atomic mass
55,942127761 ± 0,000000428 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
6,075 ± 0,01 d
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1952
parity+

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

57Ni

Massagetal57
neutron number29
relative atomic mass
56,939791394 ± 0,000000608 Da
g-factor
-0,53166666666667 ± 0,00093333333333333
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
35,6 ± 0,06 h
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1938
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

58Ni

Massagetal58
neutron number30
relative atomic mass
57,93534165 ± 0,000000374 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
68,0769 ± 0,019
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1921
parity+

decay modeintensity
+ (double β+ decay)

59Ni

Massagetal59
neutron number31
relative atomic mass
58,934345442 ± 0,000000376 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
81 ± 5 ky
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β+ (β+ decay; β+ = ϵ + e+)100%

60Ni

Massagetal60
neutron number32
relative atomic mass
59,930785129 ± 0,000000378 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
26,2231 ± 0,015
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1921
parity+

61Ni

Massagetal61
neutron number33
relative atomic mass
60,931054819 ± 0,000000381 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
1,1399 ± 0,0013
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0,162 ± 0,015
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity-

62Ni

Massagetal62
neutron number34
relative atomic mass
61,928344753 ± 0,000000455 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
3,6345 ± 0,004
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1934
parity+

63Ni

Massagetal63
neutron number35
relative atomic mass
62,929669021 ± 0,000000457 Da
g-factor
0,992 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
101,2 ± 1,5 y
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1951
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

64Ni

Massagetal64
neutron number36
relative atomic mass
63,927966228 ± 0,000000497 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
0,9256 ± 0,0019
radioaktiwiteitStabiele isotoop
HalfleeftydNot Radioactive ☢️
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1935
parity+

65Ni

Massagetal65
neutron number37
relative atomic mass
64,930084585 ± 0,000000518 Da
g-factor
0,276 ± 0,024
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,5175 ± 0,0005 h
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1946
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

66Ni

Massagetal66
neutron number38
relative atomic mass
65,929139333 ± 0,0000015 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
54,6 ± 0,3 h
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1948
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

67Ni

Massagetal67
neutron number39
relative atomic mass
66,931569413 ± 0,0000031 Da
g-factor
1,202 ± 0,01
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
21 ± 1 s
spin1/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1978
parity-

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

68Ni

Massagetal68
neutron number40
relative atomic mass
67,931868787 ± 0,0000032 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
29 ± 2 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1977
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

69Ni

Massagetal69
neutron number41
relative atomic mass
68,935610267 ± 0,000004 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
11,4 ± 0,3 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1984
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

70Ni

Massagetal70
neutron number42
relative atomic mass
69,9364313 ± 0,000002301 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
6 ± 0,3 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

71Ni

Massagetal71
neutron number43
relative atomic mass
70,940518962 ± 0,000002401 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
2,56 ± 0,03 s
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%

72Ni

Massagetal72
neutron number44
relative atomic mass
71,941785924 ± 0,000002401 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
1,57 ± 0,05 s
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

73Ni

Massagetal73
neutron number45
relative atomic mass
72,946206681 ± 0,000002601 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
840 ± 30 ms
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

74Ni

Massagetal74
neutron number46
relative atomic mass
73,947718 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
507,7 ± 4,6 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1987
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)

75Ni

Massagetal75
neutron number47
relative atomic mass
74,952506 ± 0,000215 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
331,6 ± 3,2 ms
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1992
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)10%

76Ni

Massagetal76
neutron number48
relative atomic mass
75,954707 ± 0,000322 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
234,6 ± 2,7 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)14%

77Ni

Massagetal77
neutron number49
relative atomic mass
76,959903 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
158,9 ± 4,2 ms
spin9/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)26%
2n (2-neutron emission)

78Ni

Massagetal78
neutron number50
relative atomic mass
77,962555 ± 0,000429 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
122,2 ± 5,1 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum1995
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

79Ni

Massagetal79
neutron number51
relative atomic mass
78,969769 ± 0,000537 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
44 ± 8 ms
spin5/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2010
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

80Ni

Massagetal80
neutron number52
relative atomic mass
79,975051 ± 0,000644 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
30 ± 22 ms
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2014
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)100%
β n (β-delayed neutron emission)
2n (2-neutron emission)

81Ni

Massagetal81
neutron number53
relative atomic mass
80,982727 ± 0,000751 Da
g-factor
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin3/2
nuclear quadrupole moment
ontdekkingsdatum2017
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)

82Ni

Massagetal82
neutron number54
relative atomic mass
81,988492 ± 0,000859 Da
g-factor
0
natural abundance
radioaktiwiteit☢️ radioactive element
Halfleeftyd
spin0
nuclear quadrupole moment
0
ontdekkingsdatum2017
parity+

decay modeintensity
β (β decay)
Electrolytic nickel

geskiedenis

Ontdek deurAxel Cronstedt
ligging van ontdekkingSweden
ontdekkingsdatum1751
etimologieGerman: kupfernickel (false copper).
uitspraakNIK-l (Engels)

source

Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
natural abundance (oseaan)
0,00056 mg/L
natural abundance (human body)
0,00001 %
natural abundance (Meteoroïde)
1,3 %
natural abundance (Son)
0,008 %
Abundance in Universe
0,006 %

Nuclear Screening Constants

1s0.6474
2p3.9048
2s7.7874
3d15.4705
3p13.915
3s13.039
4s22.2892