Nickel

Nickel (Ni)

Malleable ductile silvery metallic transition element. Discovered by A.F. Cronstedt in 1751.
Atomic Number28
Atomic Weight58.6934
Mass Number58
Group10
Period4
Blockd
Protons28 p+
Neutrons30 n0
Electrons28 e-
Electrolytic nickel.jpg Animated Bohr Model Enhanced Bohr Model Bohr Model Orbital Diagram

Properties

Atomic Radius
135 pm
Atomic Volume
Covalent Radius
110.00000000000001 pm
Metallic Radius
115 pm
Ionic Radius
55 pm
Crystal Radius
69 pm
Van der Waals radius
197 pm
Density
8.9 g/cm³
Boiling Point
3,005 K
Melting Point
1,726 K
Electrons per shell2, 8, 16, 2
Electronegativity
1.91
Electrophilicity
1.4915353151966 eV/particle
Proton Affinity
737 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity
Ionization Potential
7.639877 eV/particle
Heat of Vaporization
378.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion
17.61 kJ/mol
Heat of Formation
430.1 kJ/mol
Molar Heat Capacity
26.07 J/(mol K)
Specific Heat Capacity
0.444 J/(g⋅K)
Thermal Conductivity
90.9 W/(m K)
Gas Basicity
714.1 kJ/mol
Dipole Polarizability
49 a₀
C6 Dispersion Coefficient
373 a₀
Oxidation States-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Color
Gray
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant
3.52 Å
Bulk Modulus
Electrical Resistivity
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Magnetic Ordering
Magnetic Susceptibility
PhaseSolid
Poisson Ratio
Shear Modulus
Young's Modulus
Allotropes
Alternate Names
Adiabatic Index
Appearance
Electric Conductivity
Critical Pressure
Critical Temperature
Curie Point
Electrical
Hardness
Magnetic Susceptibility
Magnetic
Neel Point
Neutron Cross Section
Neutron Mass Absorption
Gas Phase
Quantum Numbers
Refractive Index
Space Group
Speed of Sound
Superconducting Point
Thermal Expansion
Valence Electrons
Classification
CategoryTransition metals, Transition metals
CAS GroupVIIIA
IUPAC GroupVIII
Glawe Number69
Mendeleev Number67
Pettifor Number67
Geochemical Classfirst series transition metal
Goldschmidt Classsiderophile
Radioactivity
RadioactiveNo
Decay Mode
Half-Life
Lifetime
Abundance
Abundance in Earth's crust
Abundance in Oceans
0.00056 mg/L
Abundance in Human Body
Abundance in Meteor
Abundance in Sun
Abundance in Universe0.006%

Isotopes of Nickel

Stable Isotopes
58Ni 60Ni 61Ni 62Ni 64Ni
Unstable Isotopes
48Ni 49Ni 50Ni 51Ni 52Ni 53Ni 54Ni 55Ni 56Ni 57Ni 59Ni 63Ni 65Ni 66Ni 67Ni 68Ni 69Ni 70Ni 71Ni 72Ni 73Ni 74Ni 75Ni 76Ni 77Ni 78Ni

History

Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC. In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal. In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel. From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper

DiscoverersAxel Cronstedt
Discovery LocationSweden
Discovery Year1751
Name OriginGerman: kupfernickel (false copper).
Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it

Uses

Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults. Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets. Used in electroplating and metal alloys because of its resistance to corrosion. Also in nickel-cadmium batteries; as a catalyst and for coins.

Sources

Chiefly found in pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] ore. The metal is produced by heating the ore in a blast furnace which replaces the sulfur with oxygen. The oxides are then treated with an acid that reacts with the iron not the nickel.